Diet for diabetes is a method of controlling the course of the disease in order to prevent the development of chronic, acute complications. The key objective of therapeutic measures is to normalize metabolic processes in the body in order to reduce blood sugar to the maximum permissible value.
The key to the well-being of the patient is compliance with a diet with a limited amount of carbohydrates and well-chosen medication.
Often due to blemishes in the diet, violations of the regimen of taking drugs, dehydration of the body and excessive exercise, against the background of hepatic, renal, heart failure, patients may experience ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia, hyperosmolar or lactic acidosis. These states develop extremely quickly from 2. up to 2 weeks and carry a potential threat to a person’s life, therefore they serve as a signal for immediate hospitalization.
If you do not start treatment of the disease in a timely manner, diabetes mellitus gives a complication to the kidneys, nervous system, blood vessels, eyes, heart.
- 1 Etiology and pathogenesis
- 2 The classification of the disease and the role of nutrition
- 3 Types of diabetes diets
- 4 Carbohydrate counting
- 5 Diet for diabetes mellitus 1 degree
- 6 Diet for diabetes mellitus 2 degree
- 7 Diet for gestational diabetes
- 8 Diet for children with insulin-dependent diabetes
- 9 Useful recipes for diabetes
Etiology and pathogenesis
Diabetes mellitus is a disease known to the ancient Greeks. Its main feature in those days (the Hellenistic period – IV – 146 BC) was an abundant excretion of urine with a characteristic sweetish taste.
Today, 4% of the world’s population suffers from this ailment. According to WHO, 8640 patients with diabetes die every day around the world, and 3 million people die in a year. This indicator is several times higher than mortality from hepatitis and AIDS. According to the International Diabetes Federation, the state at 2014g., The number of carriers of such an ailment is 285 million. Moreover, according to the forecast for 2030g. their number may increase to 438 million.
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic polyetiological illness, accompanied by an absolute and relative lack of insulin, metabolic disorders (protein, fat, carbohydrates with hyperglycemia, glycosuria).
In a healthy person, fasting blood glucose varies within 3,3-5,5 mmol / l. If he is in the 5,5-7 range, mmol / g in a patient develops prediabetes, if it exceeds 7,0, the ailment is in the progression stage.
Etiology of the disease:
- hereditary predisposition;
- viral infections (flu, sore throat), as a result of which lesion of the insular apparatus occurs and latent diabetes is formed;
- mental / physical injuries;
- vascular, autoimmune disorders.
External factors contributing to the development of diabetes mellitus:
- prolonged mental stress, stress, fear, fear;
- eating foods with an excess of carbohydrates, saturated sugars;
- prolonged overeating
The central place in the pathogenesis of diabetes is the failure of beta cells of the insular apparatus of the pancreas, accompanied by inadequate production of insulin (hormone deficiency). As a result, there is a change in the islands – hydropic degeneration, fibrosis, hyalinosis.
Symptoms of diabetes in men and women:
- polyuria (increase in the amount of urine to 8 l / day);
- weight loss;
- hair loss;
- frequent urination;
- strong thirst;
- decreased libido, potency;
- itching of the feet, palms, perineum;
- increased appetite;
- wounds do not heal well;
- decreased visual acuity;
- the smell of acetone from the mouth.
If you detect signs of disease, you should immediately consult a doctor, since the effectiveness of diabetes treatment depends on the rate at which the first symptoms of the disease are detected, the diagnosis is made, and medical therapy is carried out. Remember, in the initial stage, the disease is easier to treat.
The classification of the disease and the role of nutrition
The primary role after drug therapy should be given to the patient’s diet.
Types of diets depend on the stage of depression of the pancreas, the mechanism of its manifestation and the method of treatment.
Extent of the disease
- Diabetes 1 type. This is a severe autoimmune disease associated with impaired glucose metabolism. In this case, the pancreas does not produce at all or produces too little insulin needed to support the body’s activity. Patients with the first type of disease are forced to make up for the lack of pancreatic hormone by injecting. A low-carb diet will help control insulin-dependent diabetes. and maintaining a blood sugar index of 6,0 mmol / L after a meal. Following a nutritional program reduces the risk of hypoglycemia, complications, improves the working capacity and well-being of the patient. Diet for days with diabetes, see p. Diet for diabetes mellitus 1 degree.
- Diabetes 2 type. Often this form of the disease develops in sedentary people with age, overweight of which exceeds 15% of the total weight. Diabetes 2 degree is the most common form of the disease, it occurs among patients in 90% of cases. Considering the fact that 80% of diabetics are obese , it is important to pay special attention to nutrition, which should be low-calorie. After losing weight (protein or buckwheat), the patient is relieved – blood pressure and insulin resistance are reduced, and cholesterol levels are normalized. Changing the mode of physical activity and therapeutic diet will help eliminate symptoms, stop the progression of the disease for a long time. Otherwise, the patient’s well-being will gradually deteriorate.
How to follow a diet – see p. Diet for diabetes mellitus 2 degree.
- Gestational type. This type of diabetes develops in 4% of women during the second trimester of pregnancy. Unlike the disease of the first two types, in most cases it disappears immediately after the birth of the child, but sometimes it can “degenerate” into the second form. In order to prevent the development of the disease, it is important to control body weight within normal limits and follow a diet for initial diabetes. During pregnancy, on average, the weight gain should be 9-14 kg (while waiting for 1 baby) and 16-21 kg (twins) . In case of exceeding the indicators, getting rid of extra pounds will help the low-calorie therapeutic diet 3 for diabetes. Its essence is to balance the future mother’s diet (proteins-fats-carbohydrates) and remove risk foods that increase blood glucose (sweets, flour, potatoes). After childbirth, the best method to reduce the risk of “rebirth” of diabetes is to switch to food with a limited amount of carbohydrates and increase physical activity (aerobics, jogging, swimming). At the same time, it is recommended to focus on natural healthy fats, protein foods.
Less common forms (variants) of diabetes mellitus that occur in 1% of the world’s population are prediabetes, latent, neurogenic, renal, steroid, bronze, MODY.
Types of diabetes diets
An important place in achieving positive dynamics of treatment of the disease is occupied by insulin injections, sugar-reducing drugs and physical activity. However, a fundamental role in the opinion of some doctors is played by a proper diet.
Given the fact that 80% of diabetics are overweight, which adversely affects the well-being and course of the disease, the leading nutritionists of the twentieth century faced a difficult task – to create an effective, safe nutrition program to systematically eliminate excess kilograms and improve glycemic control. Since as a result of metabolic disorders, it is strictly forbidden to insulin-dependent patients to practice popular methods of losing weight (Energy, Kremlin, Carbohydrate-free, Kefir).
Types of nutrition programs
- A carbohydrate-free diet is a technique that is based on the use of vegetables and fruits in large quantities and the exclusion of carbohydrate products from the menu. At the same time, lactic acid and meat products are introduced into the diet in a moderate amount. As a rule, this food regimen is practiced in emergency cases – with severe obesity (8 diet) and when the sugar norm is exceeded by 3 or more. Otherwise, it is recommended to adhere to a low-carbohydrate diet.
- A protein diet in diabetes, called DiaproKal. The basis of this diet is based on the principle of minimizing the consumption of carbohydrates and fats due to an increase in protein in the diet. The main focus of the DiaproKal method is the replacement of meat with lean fish, poultry and dairy products. At the same time, it is important to use vegetable and animal protein in equal proportions. High-protein diet, due to the formation of bioactive substances in the body, suppresses appetite. Over the 1 week of a protein diet, the maximum weight loss is 2 kg.
- A low-carbohydrate diet used to create menus for diabetic types 1,2.
- Buckwheat Diet Regular consumption of this product has a beneficial effect on the body: it reduces the level of “bad” cholesterol and saturates it with iron, rutin, calcium, magnesium, fiber, iodine, and B vitamins.
A buckwheat diet in diabetes helps minimize the likelihood of macrovascular complications and ulcers.
Technology of cooking buckwheat:
- 2 Art. l grind grits in a coffee grinder;
- pour boiling water over the buckwheat powder, leave to steam for the night;
- enter into the porridge 200 ml. kefir 1%.
Buckwheat should be consumed twice a day for 30 minutes before a meal – in the morning and in the evening. The duration of such diet therapy is 7 days, weight loss – 2-3 kg.
- A diabetes prevention diet is designed to reduce the risk of pancreatic dysfunction.
Key rules of the technique:
- eat foods rich in fiber (their total volume per day should be one kg);
- “Permissible” heat treatment of ingredients – cooking, stewing, baking;
- replace red meat with fish or poultry;
- drink during the day 1,5 l fresh water;
- limit the intake of “fast” carbohydrates, which are contained in sweet baking, confectionery, sweet carbonated drinks.
“Sugar” disease often occurs in older people, and as a result, leads to a lack of oxygen to the tissues. Therefore, a prophylactic diet for diabetes type 3 or Alzheimer’s disease is a great way to keep blood sugar levels under control in order to avoid progression of the disease and the onset of complications.
If the diet is not observed, in the tissues of the lower limbs of the patient there is a deficiency of oxygen and an excess of toxins of carbohydrate metabolism, as a result of which, damage to the nerves in the legs occurs. If diabetes is not treated in a timely manner, then a foot ulcer is inevitable. The diet in this case involves the use of ingredients with a low glycemic index, the intake of antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, antihistamines, and in severe cases, surgical intervention.
To reduce the risk of pathologies (neuropathy, angiopathy and ketoacidosis), according to Professor A.S. Bronstein will help “proper nutrition” and timely administration of insulin. The doctor claims that from an early age for the prevention of autoimmune diseases, it is important for children to be accustomed to a healthy lifestyle. Therefore, the Bronstein diet for type 2 diabetes is a low-calorie diet that helps to stabilize the patient’s blood glucose.
With the onset of exacerbations from the cardiac system and blood vessels, the 10 diet for diabetes is practiced. Its peculiarity is a reduction in the intake of fluids, salt, fats, carbohydrates, since these substances overload the liver, kidneys, and excite the nervous system.
Let us consider in detail what kind of diet is needed for diabetes mellitus, recipes for dishes that are allowed to be consumed during the period of dietary nutrition.
When diabetes is detected, it is important to balance the intake of carbohydrates and sugar-lowering substances in the body. A universal parameter called a bread unit is used to calculate the calorie content of foods. At the same time, 1 XE (10 – 13 g of pure carbohydrates) increases glucose to 2,77 mmol / l and “requires” 1,4 units of insulin for its absorption. Since the injection is administered before eating, it is important to plan a one-time meal intake in advance.
Carbohydrate saturation of one meal should be 4-6 bread units. The frequency, time of meals are directly dependent on the type of sugar-lowering drug.
The amount of product that corresponds to 1ХЕ:
- sugar – 1 st. l .;
- honey – 1 st. l .;
- spaghetti – 1,5 Art. l .;
- fruit juices – 150 ml;
- ice cream – 60 g;
- sweet water with gas – 180 ml;
- bread (rye, white, black) – 25 g .;
- pancakes or pancakes – 1 pcs .;
- dough – 25 g;
- melon – 300 g;
- porridge (oatmeal, buckwheat, wheat) – 2 Art. l cereals;
- wieners – 200 g .;
- kefir, ryazhenka, milk – 250 ml;
- mashed potatoes – 100 g .;
- apples – 100 g .;
- legumes (peas, beans) – 5 Art. l .;
- kiwi fruit – 150 g;
- pears – 90 g .;
- oranges – 100 g;
- berries – 150 g;
- plums – 100 g;
- Peaches – 150 g;
- watermelon – 400 g;
- dried fruits (prunes, raisins, dried apricots) – 20
Carbohydrate saturation of the daily diet of a diabetic should not exceed 17 bread units (2000 kcal).
In addition to counting saccharides, it is important for patients with pancreatic dysfunction to carefully select food for a meal based on prohibited and permitted ingredients.
Diabetes Products Table
|Product Category||Permitted to use||Is in
|Bakery products||Bran||Wheat, wholegrain, rye, lean pastries made from flour of the second grade||Baking puff pastry, muffin|
|Meat and poultry||–||Lenten varieties of veal, lamb, chicken, turkey, rabbit, boiled tongue, dietary sausage||Fat meat of pork, beef, goose, duck, canned food, sausages, bacon, smoked sausages|
|First course||Borscht, soup, soup, soup: mushroom, fish, beetroot soup||Solyanka low-fat||Noodle Soup, Fat Broths, Traditional Kharcho|
|Fish||Lean fish fillet||Mussels, squids, shrimps, oysters, crayfish||Eel, caviar, canned food in oil, fish of the salmon family, herring (sprat), sturgeon|
|Dairy, sour-milk products||Milk, kefir, unsalted cheese 25-30%||Homemade yogurt, milk 0%, cheese, cottage cheese 5%, sour milk, ryazhenka||Sour cream, 50-60% cheese, salted cheese, glazed cheese curds, butter, condensed milk, cream|
|Kashi||Buckwheat, pearl barley, oatmeal, barley, millet||–||Semolina, unpolished rice, pasta|
|Vegetables||Carrots, cabbage (all kinds), beets, pumpkin, tomatoes, zucchini, eggplants, onions, turnips, radishes, mushrooms, cucumbers, fresh leafy greens, bell pepper||Corn, boiled potatoes, fresh legumes||French fries, fried vegetables, pickled and salted foods|
|Fruits and berries||Quince, lemons, cranberries, pear||Plums, apples, peaches, oranges, cherries, blueberries, watermelon, raspberries currants||Grapes, figs, dates, raisins, bananas|
|Dessert||Fruit Salads||Sambuca, stewed fruit, mousse on the sweetener, fruit jelly, green cocktails with the addition of honey (1 tsp)||Ice cream, cakes, fat cookies, cakes, jams, puddings, sweets, milk chocolate with nuts|
|Sauces and spices||Mustard, pepper, horseradish, tomato juice, cinnamon, dry spices and herbs||Mayonnaise home||Ketchups, vegetable browning, purchased sauces|
|Beverages||Tea, cocoa, ground coffee (without sugar and cream), rosehip and raspberry decoction, unsweetened fruit nectars, sour berry juice||Natural vegetable juices (diluted)||Lemonade on sugar, kvass, sugary drinks, alcohol|
|Fats||–||Vegetable oils (flaxseed, corn, olive sunflower), unsalted butter||Lard, meat fats|
After converting carbohydrates to bread units, it is important to determine the amount of insulin that will be needed to pay for postprandial blood sugar. Implementation of this recommendation will help to avoid dangerous conditions for life – hyper and hypoglycemia.
Diet for diabetes mellitus 1 degree
Properly chosen balanced diet allows you to:
- reduce the risk of stroke, heart attack, complications;
- maintain sugar in the normal range;
- improve well-being, increase the body’s resistance to infections, colds;
- lose weight if you are overweight.
The diabetes diet of the 1 type is based on strict control of the concentration of glucose in the blood at the mark (3,5 … 5,5 mmol / l).
Consider the features of the meal, allowing to maintain its level within the established boundaries.
- The maximum daily calorie content of dishes (total per day) is 3000 kcal.
- Fractional power (at least 5 times).
- Exclude from the menu sucrose in its pure form, to reduce blood sugar.
- Distribute the main dose of carbohydrates for breakfast, lunch.
- Do not eat at night.
- Limit the intake of easily digestible carbohydrates: baking, honey, jam, jam.
- As a sweetener use sweetener, for example, fructose.
- Monitor the quality, “natural” products.
- Adjust the schedule of insulin therapy for meals (a long-acting drug is introduced before meals, a short one – after a meal).
- Count the number of bread units to account for the amount of carbohydrates eaten per day. For one meal, no more than 8 XE should be consumed.
In the case of gastrointestinal diseases (pancreatitis, ulcers, gastritis), a diet for diabetes prohibits the intake of ingredients (pickles, smoked meats, rich broths, coffee, soda, alcohol, mushrooms, canned foods) that stimulate excessive secretion of enzymes, because they affect the rate and level of absorption of carbohydrates.
Consider products by category (allowed and prohibited), which should be taken into account when preparing the menu for the week so that sugar does not rise. Otherwise, the inclusion in the diet of the ingredients of the “risk zone” can lead to tragic consequences.
Products with diabetes 1 form:
- yeast-free pastries (pita);
- berries, fruits (plum, cherry, lemon, apple, pear, orange);
- soy products (tofu, milk);
- cereals (barley, oatmeal, buckwheat porridge);
- vegetarian soups;
- drinks (lightly carbonated mineral water, berry mousses, dried fruit compote);
- vegetables (onions, zucchini, peppers, beets, carrots);
- nuts (not fried);
- weak coffee, unsweetened green / black / fruit teas.
What you can not eat:
- rich soups, broths;
- macaroni, flour products;
- sweets (cakes, cake, candy, chocolate, muffin);
- fast food, convenience foods;
- alcoholic beverages (it is strictly forbidden to consume red dessert wine);
- sour, smoked, spicy dishes;
- fatty meats (pork, lamb, duck), fish (mackerel).
A rigid diet with increased diabetes 1 is based on the use of products with a minimal degree of cooking. Vegetables, fruits are best eaten fresh, but it is allowed to simmer, boil, bake. Fried food should be excluded from the patient’s diet.
In the period of intense training in the athlete’s menu it is worth making adjustments, since increased physical activity leads to an increase in carbohydrate consumption. As a result, with the prophylactic goal of developing hyperglycemic coma, the plant’s nutritional program should include products of plant origin (broth of blueberries, rosehip tea) that reduce sugar levels.
Consider what is a strict diet for diabetes.
This nutritional scheme, like any treatment course, is individual and is appointed by a qualified endocrinologist on the basis of the clinical picture of the disease.
The daily caloric intake of the obese patient’s diet for this insulin diet is in the range of 1200-1400 kcal. In the absence of the need to get rid of extra pounds, portions of meals can be increased.
Diet for a week for insulin-dependent overweight
Day number 1
- breakfast – bread – 1 slice, porridge – 170 g., green tea, cheese – 40 g .;
- second breakfast – pear – 0,5 pieces, melted cheese – 60 g .;
- lunch – borsch – 250 g., stewed cabbage – 200 g., vegetable salad – 100 g., steam cutlet – 100 g., pita;
- afternoon tea – dogrose decoction, cottage cheese – 100 g., fruit jelly – 100 g .;
- dinner – cauliflower cutlets – 100 g., vegetable salad – 150 g;
- at bedtime – milk – 200 ml.
Day number 2
- breakfast – boiled veal – 50 g., green tea, omelet, tomato – 1 pieces, bread – 1 slice;
- second breakfast – grapefruit or orange – 1 pieces, pistachios – 50 g .;
- lunch – chicken breast – 100 g., vegetable salad – 150 g., pumpkin porridge – 150 g .;
- afternoon tea – grapefruit – 1 pcs., kefir – 200 ml .;
- dinner – boiled fish – 100 g., stewed cabbage – 200 g .;
- before bedtime – savory cracker – 50
Day number 3
- breakfast – pita bread, weak coffee without sugar, cabbage rolls with meat – 200 g .;
- second breakfast – strawberries – 120 g., yogurt – 200 ml .;
- lunch – pasta – 100 g., vegetable salad – 100 g., steamed fish – 100 g .;
- afternoon tea – orange – 1 pieces, a decoction of dried fruit;
- dinner – cottage cheese casserole with pears – 250 g .;
- before going to bed – kefir.
Day number 4
- breakfast – porridge – 200 g., green tea, cheese – 70 g. boiled egg – 1 pcs .;
- second breakfast – toast with cheese, turkey fillet;
- lunch – stewed zucchini with meat – 200 g., vegetarian soup-puree – 150 g., bread – 2 pcs .;
- afternoon tea – zoological cookies – 15 g., unsweetened black tea;
- dinner – green beans – 200 g., boiled chicken fillet – 150 g., rosehip broth;
- bedtime – dietary dry loaves – 3 pcs.
Day number 5
- breakfast – low-fat cottage cheese (up to 5%) – 150 g., kefir – 200 ml;
- second breakfast – pumpkin seeds – 2 tablespoons, raisins – 3 tablespoons l .;
- lunch – baked potatoes – 100 g., vegetable salad – 150 g., compote without sugar – 100 g .;
- afternoon tea – unsweetened fruit tea, baked pumpkin – 150 g .;
- dinner – vegetable salad – 200 g., steam cutlet – 100 g. or pancakes with blueberries on rye flour – 250 g .;
- before going to bed – kefir 1%.
Day number 6
- breakfast – boiled egg – 1, fruit tea, light-salted salmon – 30 g .;
- second breakfast – cottage cheese – 150 g., carrots – 1 pcs .;
- lunch – green borsch – 250 g., cabbage rolls with rice and carrots – 170 g .; pita;
- afternoon tea – kefir – 150 ml., bread – 2 pieces;
- dinner – fresh peas – 100 g., boiled chicken fillet – 100 g., stewed eggplants – 150 g .;
- before going to bed – dry crackers – 50
Day number 7
- breakfast – ham – 50 g., buckwheat porridge – 200 g., green tea;
- the second breakfast – tuna salad, cucumber, cherry tomatoes, rye whole grain bread – 150 g .;
- lunch – stewed zucchini with carrots – 100 g, cabbage soup – 250 g., bread – 1 slice, chicken cutlet – 50 g .;
- afternoon tea – cottage cheese – 100 g., apricots or plums – 4 pcs;
- dinner – squid schnitzel with onions – 150 g., compote of dried fruits;
- at bedtime – milk – 200 ml.
A low-carb diet for diabetes is a well-balanced diet for the patient to maintain sugar within the normal range and systematic weight loss.
Diet for diabetes mellitus 2 degree
Basics of dietary therapeutic nutrition:
- to replace refined carbohydrates with sugar substitutes;
- the ratio of (proteins-fats-carbohydrates) should be 16%: 24%: 60%;
- reduce the consumption of animal fat to 50%;
The calorie intake of the daily ration depends on the patient’s energy consumption and body weight.
The diet for diabetes of the second type involves 5 one-time meal, while all dishes, in view of impaired liver function, are cooked exclusively in steam or in boiled form. A characteristic symptom of the disease is high sensitivity of the kidneys, as a result, for the normal functioning of paired organs, the amount of protein in the patient’s diet must be strictly controlled. At the same time, the menu should focus on products that improve fat metabolism: bran, dogrose, vegetable oils, cottage cheese, oatmeal.
The effectiveness of a therapeutic diet is necessarily monitored by systematic measurements of blood sugar: on a thin stomach, through 2 hours after the meal. In case of deviation from the norm, it is necessary to correct the diet, the dose of glucose-lowering drugs.
Diabetes 9 Diet or Table 9 is a balanced program for diabetics with mild to moderate obesity. Adhering to it, the patient’s diet is: proteins (100g), carbohydrates (320g.), Fats (80g.), Of which 30% are unsaturated triglycerides.
The essence of the diet for diabetes number 9 is to reduce the consumption of “simple” carbohydrates, animal fats, as well as limit the calorie intake. In the absence of problems with excess weight, sugar and sweets should be replaced with sweeteners – sorbitol, xylitol, fructose, maltitol, in the presence of stevia, aspartame, glycyrrhizin, taumarin, neohesperidin.
The diet for diabetes 2 type is practically no different from the nutrition program of people who monitor their health:
- the total amount of daily food divided into 5 techniques: 2 snacking on 1-2ХЕ, 3 basic on 5-8ХЕ;
- do not skip breakfast;
- maximum break between meals – 4 h .;
- the last meal in the evening – for 1,5 hours before bedtime;
- In the intervals between meals, it is recommended to eat vegetable salads, fruits, freshly squeezed juices, decoction of dried fruits, kefir, milk, green or fruit tea, savory biscuits (cracker), bread.
Adhering to the correct nutritional program, the patient will not only improve his state of health, greet the figure, but also avoid terrible complications from the heart (arteriosclerosis of the arteries), eye damage (retinopathy), kidney (nephropathy), nerves (neropathy).
In the event of diseases of the biliary tract, liver, bladder, the 5 diet is used in diabetes, which limits salt intake to 10 g / day, based on the intake of greens, cereals, pureed soups, vegetables, berries, fruits, low-fat meats and lactic acid products . This method of treatment in conjunction with medical preparations leads to an improvement in the patient’s state of health and the complete or partial elimination of the disease, depending on the stage of complication.
Daily diet for diabetes of the second form
Day number 1
- breakfast – asparagus – 100, scrambled eggs from 3-4 quail eggs;
- second breakfast – salad of walnuts, squid, apples – 200 g .;
- lunch – baked eggplants stuffed with pomegranate, nuts – 100 g., beetroot soup – 250 g .;
- afternoon tea – avocado and cocoa ice cream – 100 g .;
- dinner – salmon steak with radish sauce – 200
Day number 2
- breakfast – yogurt, rolled oats – 200 g. (stevia or agave nectar can be used as a sweetener), apple – 1 pcs .;
- the second breakfast – a fruit smoothie (chopped in a blender 80 g. sweet cherries, strawberries, melons and 4 ice cube);
- dinner – baked veal – 150 g., vegetable stew – 200 g .;
- lunch – cottage cheese and pear casserole – 150 g .;
- dinner – mix of vegetables – 200 g., avocado – half of the fruit.
Day number 3
- breakfast – two eggs with cheese, basil, tomatoes;
- second breakfast – “steam” vegetables – 100 g., hummus – 100 g .;
- lunch – vegetarian soup – 200, green peas – 50, chicken cutlets – 150;
- afternoon tea – pear – 1 pieces, almonds – 50 g .;
- dinner – salmon – 150 g., yogurt, spinach.
Day number 4
- breakfast – baked fruit (apples, plums, cherries) in agave nectar – 200 g .;
- the second breakfast – a tuna sandwich with lettuce leaves;
- dinner – beef steak – 150 g., boiled cauliflower – 200 g., salad from tomatoes, arugula, parmesan – 100 g .;
- afternoon tea – fruit and berry dessert (chopped mango, kiwi, strawberries combined with snow, pour orange juice and freeze) – 150 g .;
- dinner – broccoli roll – 200
Day number 5
- breakfast – orange – 1; fruit tea, low-fat cheese – 30 g., bread – 2 units;
- the second breakfast – beet salad with nuts – 200 g .;
- lunch – rice – 200 g., salmon, steamed – 150 g., grapefruit – 1 pcs .;
- afternoon snack – berries with whipped cream 10% – 150 g .;
- dinner – dogrose broth, squid schnitzel with onions – 200
Day number 6
- breakfast – carrot and cottage cheese souffle – 200 g .;
- second breakfast – cauliflower cutlets – 100 g .;
- lunch – a salad of tangerine, chicken breast, arugula – 200 g., dried fruit compote, vegetable borscht – 200 ml .;
- Snack – mousse from kiwi, raspberry – 200 ml .;
- dinner – cod with carrots, steamed – 200 g., kefir.
Day number 7
- breakfast – baked apple stuffed with flakes of oats, nuts, raisins – 1 pcs .;
- second breakfast – fruit and vegetable salad from kohlrabi, celery, pears – 200 g., shrimps – 100 g .;
- lunch – polenta – 200 g., greens, boiled hake – 200 g., kiwi – 1 pcs.;
- afternoon snack – strawberry with mascarpone – 100 g .;
- Dinner – cucumber salad with onions, spinach – 250 g., green tea.
The diet for diabetes 2 type with obesity is aimed at reducing the patient’s body weight by reducing the amount of consumption (or complete exclusion) of foods with a glycemic index in excess of 60 units. and more than 350 calories in calories.
Depending on the form of the disease, changes may be made in the patient’s menu.
Remember, the above exemplary diet is not a universal nutrition system for all diabetics, therefore, in the process of its observance it is important to monitor your well-being. In case of its deterioration, “problematic” products should be excluded from the menu.
Diet for gestational diabetes
In some cases, in the body of the future mother fails proper operation of the pancreas. In this case, the body begins to stop insulin production, and as a result, gestational diabetes develops. In most cases, this condition is easy to control with proper nutrition.
Diet for diabetes during pregnancy
- Exclude sugar, confectionery, pastries, semolina, sweet fruits, and products containing sweeteners from the diet.
- Balance the daily menu. The daily intake of carbohydrates is 50%, protein – 30%, fat – 15-20%. Moreover, diet for diabetes involves minimizing the amount of food that contains plant and animal triglycerides (5-10%).
- Observe drinking regimen – 1,5 – 2 liters of water per day.
- To enrich the daily ration of starchy (cereals, rye bread, brown rice, legumes, sweet potatoes, Jerusalem artichoke, radish, beets) and fermented milk products.
- Snack on fresh fruit.
- Distribute the daily rate of food on 3 main “approach” (breakfast, lunch, dinner) and 2 snack (lunch, afternoon snack).
- Enrich the daily diet with multivitamin complexes for pregnant women.
- Reduce the sugar with folk remedies using decoctions of celery roots, linden flowers, blueberry leaves, lilac buds, bean pods.
- Limit caffeine intake. Allowable alkaloid rate – 2 portions of coffee or tea.
The optimal calorie daily diet of a pregnant woman – 2000 – 3000 kcal. At the same time, a carbohydrate-free diet for gestational diabetes is prohibited.
- breakfast – millet porridge – 150 g., fruit tea, rye bread – 20 g;
- lunch – dried whole grain bun – 50 g, unsalted cheese 17% – 20 g, apple – 1 pcs .;
- lunch – buckwheat porridge – 100 g, a mix of cabbage, Jerusalem artichoke, cucumbers – 150 g, stewed beef – 70 g;
- afternoon snack – cottage cheese 5% – 100 g, unsweetened cracker – 2 pcs., orange – 1 pcs.;
- dinner – boiled chicken fillet – 60 g, vegetable garnish (carrots, cabbage, pepper) – 100 g, tomato juice – 180 ml, bread – 2 pcs .;
- 3 hours before bedtime – kefir / yogurt – 200 ml.
In addition to adherence to a special diet, patients with gestational diabetes are shown walking (40 min. Per day) and moderate physical activity (gymnastics, water exercises).
Before each meal, after 1 hours after eating, it is important for pregnant women to measure the value of glucose in the blood. If the measures taken do not reduce the sugar concentration, you should seek the advice of an experienced endocrinologist. Diabetes mellitus in pregnant women in 20% of cases becomes chronic. Therefore, each mother, during 3 – 5 months. after childbirth, it is important to monitor your diet and control the level of production of your own insulin.
Diet for children with insulin-dependent diabetes
Diabetes mellitus in childhood and adolescence is much more difficult than in adults. Genetic predisposition of the child, stress and unhealthy diet are the main causes of the development of autoimmune disease.
In 80% of cases, children are diagnosed with an insulin-dependent form of diabetes (1 type). Early repression, immediate treatment and strict adherence to a special diet will help to stop the consequences of the disease.
Children’s Diabetes Diet
- To exclude sugar, sweet soda, confectionery, bakery products from wheat flour, fried foods, pastries from the menu.
- Enrich the daily menu of unsweetened fruits, vegetables and herbs (without restrictions). Under the ban – grapes, bananas, raisins, dates, persimmon, figs.
- Use natural sugar substitutes – fructose, sorbitol, xylitol.
- Distribute the daily rate of food on 6 receptions. At the same time, it is important to eat food at equal intervals. Allowable deviations in the child’s power chart – 15 – 20 min.
- Eat food after 15 min. after insulin administration and later 2 hours after injection.
- If it is not possible to eat at the set time, you can eat small loaves, pears, nuts, a cheese sandwich or an apple as a snack. In no case can not starve.
- “Cupping” the attacks of hypoglycemia will help immediate reception of a slice of chocolate. Therefore, in an adult person who accompanies a child, a sweet product must always be available.
- Enrich the daily diet of the child with fermented milk products.
- Calculate daily intake of fructose. The amount of sweetener directly depends on the age of the child and the nature of the disease.
To lower blood glucose, it is advisable for a child to give broths of blueberries, nettle, corn stalks, mint leaves, barberry branches, bean pods, Jerusalem artichoke, ginseng and eleutherococcus.
Useful recipes for diabetes
Consider the most popular low-carb diet meals and cooking technology.
- broccoli – 300 g .;
- Zucchini – 200 g .;
- spinach – 100 g .;
- celery – 200;
- rye flour – 1 st.l;
- milk – 200 ml;
- onion – 1 pcs .;
- cream – 100 ml;
- water – 500 ml.
Principle of preparation:
- peel and chop the onion, zucchini, celery, spinach;
- divide broccoli into inflorescences;
- immerse the vegetables in boiling water, cook for 15 minutes;
- grind finished products using a blender;
- in the resulting vegetable mixture to enter the milk, cream, add salt and pepper, put on the stove;
- simmer gently for three minutes;
- when serving decorate with greens.
- white cabbage – 150 g .;
- olive oil – 1 tbsp;
- tomatoes – 2 pcs .;
- cucumbers – 2 pcs.
Principle of preparation: cut vegetables, mix in containers, fill with vegetable oil.
Squid Schnitzel with Onions
- bread crumbs – 25 g .;
- squid – 400 g .;
- egg – 1 pcs .;
- vegetable oil;
- greens (parsley, spinach);
- onions – 1 pcs.
- chop the squid carcasses using a meat grinder;
- add to the resulting minced ground crackers, salt;
- peel, chop, beat onions in a frying pan;
- chop greens;
- beat the egg;
- mix onions, greens, squid meat;
- form minced schnitzels, thickness 1 cm;
- dip the meat layer in the egg, roll in breadcrumbs;
- fry for 6 minutes on fire until golden.
Pancakes with blueberries on rye flour
- cottage cheese 2% – 200 g .;
- blueberries – 150 g .;
- stevia herb – 2 bag according to 1 g .;
- soda – tsp 1 without mountains;
- sesame oil – 2 st.l;
- rye flour – 200 g .;
- egg – 1 pcs.
Technology of preparation:
- make a tincture of stevia: pour 2 herb bag with a glass of hot water (90 ° С), infuse for 30-40 minutes, cool;
- wash berries, dry;
- knead the dough: mix cottage cheese, egg, tincture, then gently introduce the flour, soda, blueberry, butter;
- bake in a heated pan 20 minutes.
- eggs – 2 pcs .;
- rice flour – 4 st.l;
- green onions;
- cauliflower – 500 g .;
- vegetable oil;
The sequence of creating cutlets:
- disassemble cauliflower into inflorescences, boil for 15 for a minute, fold to a plate, then cool and chop;
- in the resulting puree to enter the rice flour, salt;
- set dough aside for 30 minutes;
- cook, chop an egg;
- chop the onion;
- roll balls of cabbage dough, from them to form cakes, in the center of which put egg-onion stuffing, pinch, roll in rice flour;
- Vegetable cutlets fry over low heat for 9 minutes on both sides.
Cottage cheese and pear casserole
- eggs – 2 pcs .;
- cottage cheese 2% – 600 g .;
- sour cream 10% – 2 st.l;
- rice flour – 2 st.l;
- Pears – 600
Dessert preparation technology:
- grind cottage cheese with flour, eggs, vanilla.
- peel the pears, core them, divide them into 2 parts: first – cut into 1 cm x 1 cm, second – rub into a large grater;
- mix cottage cheese with fruit, leave to “rest” for half an hour;
- put the dough into a silicone container, brush the top of the casserole with sour cream, distribute pear slices over the surface;
- bake in the oven at 180 ° C 45 minutes.
Cottage cheese and carrot souffle
- carrots – 2 pcs .;
- rye flour – 50 g .;
- cottage cheese – 200 g .;
- eggs – 3 pcs .;
- walnuts – 50
Principle of preparation:
- grind cottage cheese until smooth;
- peel carrots, chop with a grater;
- divide eggs into whites, yolks;
- chop parsley, nuts;
- enter the yolks into the carrot-cottage cheese mixture;
- beat whites;
- put paper forms into muffin molds;
- add proteins to the dough, stir, distribute the mass in molds;
- put the souffle in the oven, bake for 20 minutes at t = 190 ° С.
Thus, the diet for patients with diabetes mellitus plays an important role, since the well-being and life of the patient depends on the correctness of its preparation. Therefore, it is important to take a very serious and careful approach to the preparation of a diet and its following; otherwise, negligence can lead to tragic consequences.