When playing sports the right diet is important for maintaining health and new achievements. A special menu will be needed both by professionals and just amateurs. The sports diet meets any demands of athletes: with its help, you can gain weight or lose, quickly bring yourself into the right shape, eat tasty food without harm to your figure. In this article we will learn how to increase the effectiveness of power loads with the help of power.
Rational sports nutrition
A sports diet should saturate well, fill with useful components for building muscle, contain the right amount of vitamins and minerals. Any methods that require the rejection of carbohydrates or fats should be taken as a joke. With increased loads, the body needs all the nutrients, and a deficiency of even one of them can erase all efforts in the gym.
A rational diet is a way to keep fit. It is designed for those who have no desire to lose weight or a special need to gain weight. The diet is designed to maintain the results achieved and improve the effect of power loads. In the intervals between “dryers” or, on the contrary, breaks for tasty, you must return to a rational diet.
This model of nutrition is suitable for people involved in sports or just hard physical work. In terms of composition, it is a fully balanced and complete diet. None of the components are excluded: the daily caloric content should be 30% fat and 20% protein, the rest half are complex carbohydrates. Protein food must contain both vegetable protein and animal.
In recommendations for sports nutrition, you can often find a negative opinion about fats and carbohydrates. Often, professionals and amateurs switch to a protein diet, practically abandoning the remaining important nutrients. Carbohydrates play an equally important role in building and maintaining muscle mass than protein. If you deprive the body of the main source of energy, it will begin to draw it just from the muscles, so cereals, potatoes, beans will be an excellent help in the process of forming the relief.
Deficiency of saturated and unsaturated fats leads to metabolic disorders, slows down tissue repair, worsens resistance to inflammatory processes. For athletes, a lack of fat is especially dangerous for the destruction of joints. Saturated fatty acids are recommended to be obtained from dairy products and eggs. You can replenish the required amount of unsaturated fats from oily fish, nuts, vegetable oil. Vegetable fats are destroyed by heat treatment, so it is important to use them in a cold form: as part of freshly squeezed juices, raw mashed potatoes, smoothies.
The recommended ratio of proteins, carbohydrates and fats may vary depending on physique and sport. For men and women, these are almost identical indicators. Ladies are recommended from fats to give greater preference to vegetable, as women are more likely to accumulate a fat layer. And for men, animal fats are required, as they contribute to the production of testosterone.
To always stay in shape, you need to calculate your real need for the number of calories. To do this, use a special formula:
- for women: 65 + (9,6 * personal weight) + (1,9 * your height) – (4,7 * your age);
- men: 66 + (13,8 * personal weight) + (5 * your height) – (6,8 * your age).
The result will show how many kilocalories are needed in a calm state. That is, this is the amount of energy that the body spends only on vital processes: respiration, blood flow, etc. To this figure, you need to add a special factor, which depends on the level of stress. Odds are as follows:
- 1,2 – minimum load, bed rest;
- 1,3 – sedentary lifestyle, sedentary work;
- 1,5 – the average level of load, periodic exercises in the gym;
- 1,7 – a high level of exercise, sports, 2-3 workouts once a week;
- 1,9 – a very high load, regular exercise and training, visiting the gym every day.
To the sum obtained as a result of the calculation, you must add another 10%. This “additive” of energy is spent on the process of digesting food. Calculating the number of calories and compliance with the rules of the diet for athletes will always stay in shape.
The choice of products should fall only on natural and fresh names. Food must be prepared at home, reduce the amount of salt and other spices, eliminate synthetic additives.
Be sure to eat vegetables in raw and cooked form, lean meat and fish, nuts, dairy products.
Creating a menu to maintain weight is not difficult. You can eat everything except obviously harmful food: any carbonated drinks, too fatty, fried in large quantities of oil. Confectionery and refined sugar should be minimized. For dinner, it is better to give preference to proteins, because at night carbohydrates can go into fat reserve.
Traditional for all diets remains attention to the drinking regimen. Athletes are recommended to drink eight glasses of water per day. The main thing is not to drink food, you can drink a maximum of 20 minutes before the meal and 40-60 minutes after it. You can use ordinary mineral water, decoctions of fruits and herbs, teas, unsweetened coffee.
Obligatory point of compliance with this diet is the sport itself. The consumption of even useful components in the excess volume without power loads will lead to a commonplace obesity.
Nutrition for weight gain
To achieve maximum results in building muscle mass is possible only in a complex combination of proper nutrition and power loads. Any athlete, regardless of the state of his muscles and experience, should be familiar with rational sports nutrition. A diet for weight gain is characterized by increased caloric content with a focus on protein food. Although other power components are also present here.
An increase in energy consumption is necessary, because for weight gain, and the power loads themselves must increase. To cover the body’s need for energy, an athlete must consume more of the right food. The basic principles of this diet are:
- More calories. To build muscle, it is precisely high-calorie food that is needed, the percentage of vegetables and fruits should be only 30% of the total amount of food. Plant fiber enhances intestinal motility, due to which most protein and carbohydrate foods will not be absorbed properly. Therefore, fruits and vegetables should be present in the diet, but emphasis on low calorie content is not necessary.
- Compliance with the proportions. Of all the food consumed, half should be carbohydrates, proteins – 35%, fats – 15%. These figures are suitable for most athletes and bodybuilders, but the exact need to determine the individual need can be observed through personal experience.
- Equal distribution of food throughout the day. It is desirable that all meals are the same in volume. Determine your optimal portion can also, over time, watching the body. There is no such portion that would suit equally for girls and men.
- Fractional power. For athletes, as for anyone else, it is important to eat in small portions throughout the day. So the body in the normal amount of nutrients, vitamins, proteins. This frequency of receptions does not overload the digestive organs and gradually assimilates food, processing it into useful energy. If you eat the same amount of food, but for 2-3 intake, excess nutrients will go to the fat supply. To remove them from there in a high-calorie diet is very difficult.
- Meals before and after workouts. For 1,5-2 hours to start workout need to eat. Recommend to use more protein foods and complex carbohydrates. The greatest need for nutrients comes after power loads. During this period, you can even eat some fast carbohydrates for a quick recovery of energy and strength.
- Standard drinking mode.
Building muscle can occur when more energy is consumed than is expended. Recommend to gradually increase the rate of calories, watching your weight. The optimal increase should be up to 600 g per week. If the indicators are more, then you need to reduce the amount of food, less – you can increase. It is advised to weigh yourself at least once every three days.
For beginners, you can start with the classic ratio of proteins, carbohydrates and fats, and over time, adjust these indicators to your personal needs. As with any dietary diet, the menu for muscle gain should contain fortified foods, lean meat, fish (possibly fatty), and dairy products. If desired, protein shakes, gainer, creatine are introduced into the diet, but moderation in this matter is very important.
Be sure to minimize the amount of salt and refined sugar. Spicy herbs and hot spices can be used to taste, but no frills, as they provoke appetite. In addition to wholesome foods, it is recommended to take complex vitamin formulations and Omega-3 fatty acids.
The rules for weight gain are typical for both men and women.
Sports nutrition for weight loss
The need to lose weight may appear before the competition, for passing to the desired weight category, for beginners at the beginning of the sports path. Sports diet for weight loss is also applied before the “drying” process.
The main objective of such a diet is to provide the athlete with a sufficient amount of protein in low-calorie nutrition. The daily calorie intake for burning fat must be calculated independently. To do this, you need to calculate the formula that we considered above, and the resulting figure should be multiplied by 0,8. The results of such an equation will be the required number of calories individually for women and men.
To lose weight faster, you can reduce the energy intake even more, but only under the supervision of a nutritionist. Specialists in healthy nutrition believe that men should not reduce caloric intake less than 1800 kcal, and for women this figure is 1200 kcal.
Too critical food restrictions are strictly prohibited.
Diet rules and a set of products are characteristic of a healthy lifestyle. It is necessary to refuse everything that does not bring advantage and can be dangerous to health. In the first half of the day slow carbohydrates rely, after workouts and for supper, proteins are definitely needed. Almost 70% of the total amount of food should be consumed before 16: 00, since the body absorbs nutrients faster during the day.
It is desirable that the menu for the week consists of low-calorie days and one discharge. Periodically recommend to resort to a roller coaster, which are extremely useful for weight loss. For a good example, consider this menu on 7 days with a “female” calorie content.
The first day
Breakfast: carrot and seaweed salad, tea.
Lunch: sweet and sour apple.
Lunch: cream soup with broccoli and chicken, rye crackers.
Snack: fermented baked milk with a handful of blueberries.
Dinner: oatmeal on the water, a salad of boiled egg and lettuce leaves.
Breakfast: boiled brown rice, sweet pepper, coffee without additives.
Lunch: lean borsch, a little sour cream, toast.
Snack: a handful of dried apricots, chamomile tea.
Dinner: stew of zucchini and carrots with a rabbit.
The third day
Breakfast: millet porridge with pumpkin, tea.
Lunch: skim milk.
Lunch: pickle without potatoes, bran toast.
Snack: peanuts, mineral water.
Dinner: steam zander, berry compote.
Breakfast: scrambled eggs with mushrooms, black coffee.
Lunch: soup with barley and vegetables.
Tea time: sweet and sour apple.
Dinner: cottage cheese casserole with tomatoes.
Breakfast: tea, sandwiches with chicken breast and lettuce.
Lunch: fish stock without potatoes, rye bread.
Lunch: hard cheese with lime tea.
Dinner: stewed asparagus beans, boiled veal.
The sixth day is unloading: you can use kefir, Greek yogurt, mono-diet on vegetables or fruits.
Breakfast: boiled eggs, vegetable salad.
Lunch: two kiwi, mineral water.
Lunch: mushroom soup, natural crackers.
Snack: prunes, tea.
Dinner: unsweetened oatmeal, a piece of boiled fish.
Menus should be more advanced, contain more protein and a little more animal fat. Food is still forbidden to salt, and it’s better to add honey to drinks if they don’t like them at all without sugar.
Diet for burning fat should be accompanied by power loads. The growth of muscle mass can hide the real results of losing weight, so the indicators of weights may even increase. With proper weight reduction should go on 2-4 kilogram per month. Beginners after achieving the desired result, you need to go on a diet to maintain physical fitness or to gain muscle mass. Depending on the goals of a diet for weight loss will last from a week to several months.
Drying is used for greater body relief and maximum fat burning. Nutritionists emphasize that such a diet should be a short-term method and not a daily nutritional model. The menu of such a diet is not balanced in terms of the content of nutritional components, therefore, it is not recommended to stick to it for more than 4-5 weeks.
To dry the body, a diet is built in which proteins predominate. For gradual addiction and transition, it is recommended to gradually reduce the amount of carbohydrate food to complete carbohydrate starvation. During these periods, you can eat fish, egg whites, chicken and beef fillet, cottage cheese, seafood, protein shakes, vegetables and herbs. The amount of bread, sweets and sweet fruits, rice and semolina should be minimized.
Drying is a diet for a relief body. Accordingly, if there are no pumped muscles under the “fat”, it does not make sense to sit on it. The diet should be accompanied by good power loads. Two hours before workouts and two hours after they are forbidden to eat.
It is a common misconception that drying is accompanied by the rejection of water. Sometimes professional bodybuilders don’t really drink water a few days before the competition. This does not apply to a healthy lifestyle, and just to look at “oneself beautiful” in the mirror, it is not recommended to torture oneself with thirst. In order to burn the fat layer as much as possible, you need to continue to drink the amount of water that your body requires.
At the end of the drying period, you need to gradually return to the diet carbohydrates. The results of such a diet are fixed for a long time, if you continue to lead an active lifestyle. To keep fit, it is better to switch to regular sports nutrition.
Sports diet is designed to fill the body with vitamins, nutrients, minerals. It helps to quickly achieve the desired results: to gain a beautiful body and healthy mind. Feedback from those who correctly follow this technique is only positive. But even to such a useful diet, it is important to proceed carefully. Before a diet, it is better to consult a nutritionist if there are any chronic diseases or pathologies of internal organs.