In the structure of total mortality, diseases of the cardiovascular system occupy a leading place. In this regard, the need for prevention among the population is growing more and more, and therapeutic methods are becoming more popular. The key to treating heart and blood vessel disease is nutrition.
The diet that is used to treat the cardiovascular system was developed by Manuel Pevzner, a Soviet scientist, professor and nutritionist. Familiarity with the technique will help to avoid a heart attack, atherosclerosis, restore health after complications.
Application and purpose of the diet
The Pevzner treatment program is sometimes called the “Table No. 10.” The scientist dedicated a cycle of diets for various heart diseases: for hypertension, atherosclerosis, heart attack, etc. The tenth diet is used for patients with I and IIa degree of circulatory failure. Therapeutic measures at these stages of the disease are important, since timely treatment will not allow the disease to develop. This program should only be used as prescribed by your doctor. Suitable for the period of subcompensation and compensation.
The diet is aimed at restoring normal heart function, normalizing blood circulation. As a result of prolonged proper nutrition, the patient recovers liver and kidney function, swelling subsides, shortness of breath and fatigue disappear, and weight normalizes. These results can be achieved by sparing the digestive tract and the cardiovascular system. To do this, you must follow all the rules of the diet.
Terms of supply
The cause of heart and vascular diseases is often malnutrition. A lot of fatty, sweet, high cholesterol, poor-quality food provoke an additional burden on all organs, including the heart. A proper diet should be an integral part of treatment for cardiovascular disease.
The Pevzner diet is considered physiologically complete. The patient should receive a sufficient amount of food, but with reduced calorie content. Reduced energy is due to the exclusion of fatty, fried, sweet. Salt must be excluded, with the permission of the doctor, the patient relies on approximately 5 g of sodium chloride.
A large amount of water is undesirable, since excess fluid puts a strain on the digestive organs, liver and kidneys. 1,5 free liquid is put per day. Given the fact of a limited drinking regime, it is necessary to reduce the number of first courses and drinks.
Tonic drinks are not allowed, as they have an exciting effect on the central nervous system and heart. These include coffee, energy, green tea, ginger.
Vegetables and fruits can be consumed in moderation. Plant fiber can put extra strain on the stomach and intestines. Up to three small vegetable portions are relied per day. It is forbidden to bake food with a crust and fry. You can use all other types of cooking: steamed, in a slow cooker, boiling, grilling. Meat products must be cooked before further processing.
It is recommended to maintain the same intervals between meals. The portions must be reduced, the simultaneous use of large volumes requires large expenditures from the digestive system and the heart.
Patient responsibility is very important. During the period of treatment, it is extremely undesirable to break down on the “tasty” and overeat, as this can prolong the period of therapy and aggravate the general state of health.
List of products for diet
According to the chemical composition of food should be full and balanced. Daily calorie intake during the treatment program should be within the normal range, approximately 2500 kcal.
The menu should consist of easy-to-digest food and natural ingredients. You can add to the diet:
- lean meats: edged veal, pork without veins and fascia, beef, chicken and turkey without skin, rabbit fillet;
- low-fat fish, suitable: flounder, hake, carp, pike perch, perch, eel, etc .;
- seafood, seaweed;
- salt-free bread, wheat flour of the first and second grinding (per day is laid up to 150 g) in dried form, yesterday’s pastries, pasta;
- boiled and steam eggs, allowed up to 5 pieces per week;
- dairy products, cottage cheese, unsalted cheese with low fat content, milk (with the permission of a doctor);
- cereals, semolina – to a limited extent;
- vegetables (except prohibited), green peas and white cabbage should be limited;
- fruits and berries, nuts, dried fruits.
Cereals can be cooked in milk or water, combined with boiled fish or meat, added to soups. Sometimes it is not forbidden to boil pasta, it is possible from wheat or buckwheat flour. The first dishes are recommended to be consumed in moderation, according to 150-200 g at a time, vegetables for soup should not be fried.
Exclude from the diet you need:
- lamb, meat with fat, duck, goose, offal;
- fatty fish, salted and smoked fish, caviar;
- canned food, pickles and marinades;
- any store sauces;
- fatty and salty cheese;
- confectionery, chocolate, baking;
- mushrooms, radishes, sorrel and spinach;
- soft drinks, soda, cocoa;
- fresh baked goods;
- garlic and onions.
When cooking, do not forget that you can not add salt. Garden greens, natural herbs are allowed. Spices that are sharp and bright in taste are also better to exclude, as they excite the appetite.
It is important to ensure that the body is saturated with beneficial components and nutrients. On the day you need to eat two or three servings of carbohydrate dishes (with a predominance of complex), two servings of protein food, in breaks should be dietary fiber (vegetables, berries, fruits). Periodically you need to eat nuts and drink sour-milk drinks to avoid a lack of potassium. This macronutrient is extremely important for the heart, for the prevention of its deficiency is often prescribed a potassium diet.
The diet is best written on a piece of paper and placed in a conspicuous place, preferably at the same time. An approximate menu for a week can be made in advance, so that later you do not come up with dietary solutions on the go.
The first day
In the morning: buckwheat in milk mashed, a little dried apricots, herbal decoction.
Snack: peeled grated apple with carrots.
Lunch: fish steaks, mashed potatoes, unsweetened berry juice.
At lunch: milk.
Dinner: stuffed peppers, tomato juice.
In the morning: cereal flakes with pieces of peeled pear, weak black tea.
Snack: Kiwi puree.
Lunch: vegetable soup with pearl barley, dried bread.
At lunch: a little curd, one tomato.
Dinner: vinaigrette without onions and beans, a piece of boiled beef, a glass of natural juice.
The third day
In the morning: one boiled egg in a bag, a salad of cucumber and tomato, linden tea.
Snack: unsweetened yogurt.
Lunch: boiled millet porridge with pieces of boiled veal, squash caviar.
For an afternoon snack: a few nuts, a rosehip broth.
Dinner: baked fish, boiled cauliflower.
In the morning: liquid semolina, some honey or jam, unsweetened tea.
Snack: dried bread with cottage cheese.
Lunch: vegetarian beetroot, baked potatoes, fresh cucumber.
At lunch: homemade oatmeal cookies, milk milk.
Dinner: stewed eggplant with rabbit meat, carrot juice.
In the morning: barley porridge, Greek salad without onions.
Snack: a glass of kefir, some berries.
Lunch: vegetarian borsch, broccoli puree, milk jelly.
At lunch: berry jelly, chamomile decoction.
Dinner: cottage cheese casserole, salad from boiled beets and prunes.
In the morning: grated rice porridge, pieces of kiwi, tea with milk.
Snack: yesterday’s rye bread, slices of avocado and tomato.
Lunch: cooked beef stroganoff, boiled potato garnish.
For a mid-afternoon snack: a glass of carrot and apple fresh, walnuts.
Dinner: boiled squid fillet, green beans, milk.
In the morning: oatmeal in milk with honey, linden tea.
Snack: grated carrots with raisins, seasoned with a spoon of unsweetened yogurt.
Lunch: stewed fish in tomato juice, boiled mashed rice.
Afternoon snack: stewed pumpkin with flax and sunflower seeds.
Dinner: baked rabbit with prunes, a glass of apple juice.
Before compiling a menu, you need to check with your doctor whether dairy products can be used. Sometimes it is replaced by herbal analogues: soy, almond, coconut.
You can not starve on a diet, nutrition must fully meet the needs of the body. Do not forget about the calculation of fluid, small deviations from the norm are not terrible, but for a speedy recovery it is better to follow the rules accurately.
Diet №10 with hypertension and other diseases can last as long as necessary to restore the patient’s health. The exact duration of the program can be established only by a doctor, as a rule, this technique is prescribed for several months or more.
If the patient is diagnosed with IIb or III degree of insufficiency, diet No. 10a is used. In this case, the therapy will be more thorough, and the diet more sparing for the digestive organs, central nervous system and heart. The purpose of the diet is to maximize the discharge of these organs in a state of decompensation.
The list of products remains the same as the tenth diet. The patient is forbidden to eat fatty, canned, fried, baking and confectionery, hot spices and salt, meat by-products. Alcohol, soda, energy, coffee and green tea should be completely eliminated. Limited to fruits and vegetables with coarse fiber and peel.
It is advisable to wipe the cereals; they can be cooked with milk or water. Soups should be without fatty broth, it is advisable to cook them on vegetables or lean fish. The amount of dried bread is recommended to be reduced to 150 g. The daily calorie rate is reduced to 2000 kcal.
In the day you need to drink no more than a liter of water. Fluid restriction is caused by impaired kidney and liver function in these stages of the disease. Diet number 10a lasts until the patient feels better and the disease regresses. Often the 10 table goes into the tenth diet.
Table 10b is prescribed to patients without circulatory disorders with diagnosed rheumatism, after myocardial infarction. The diet is less rigid and full in composition. The patient needs to increase the dose of products containing potassium and magnesium: nuts, cereals, milk. The menu must be protein food, with a predominance of animal protein.
After a heart attack, a diet is prescribed in several stages. The diet consists of three phases, which are assigned alternately:
- First phase. Lasts for the first week after a stroke. The energy value is reduced to 1200 kcal, per day the patient is expected to approximately 1,5 kg of food and 0,8 liters of fluid. Dishes are as soft, warm, mashed. Salt is not used at all, periodically you can eat crackers from rye bread, fresh vegetables are prohibited.
- Second phase. It proceeds at 2-3 week, a subacute period. Daily caloric content increases to 1800 kcal, fluids can be consumed in the amount of 1 liter. Allowed to 3 g of sodium chloride. You can introduce fresh vegetables, increase the amount of protein foods and proper fats.
- The third phase falls on the fourth week after a heart attack, during this period scarring occurs. The menu at this stage will be full, the amount of food should increase to 2,2 kg, and water – 1,1 l. The permissible salt norm is 6 g per day. The list of products is typical for table number 10.
In the last phase, dishes are prepared with minimal use of salt, it must be borne in mind that the set norm of sodium chloride will contain bread. Meat and fish should be boiled before another type of cooking. It is allowed to fry food in a small amount of vegetable oil. Porridge should be boiled, periodically they need to be wiped. Vegetables can be eaten cooked or raw.
After the fourth week, the liquid volume increases to 1,5 liters, you need to consider all drinks and first courses. The daily calorie intake should be 2500 kcal, if the lifestyle is inactive, this figure should drop to 2200 kcal.
During treatment, the patient must be monitored periodically by the attending physician in order to adjust the menu.
Table No. 10с is intended for patients with atherosclerosis. During the diet, the patient recovers liver and kidney function, metabolism normalizes, the course of the disease slows down, blood circulation in the vessels and cells stabilizes.
Depending on the condition of the patient and the presence of excess weight, the doctor may prescribe one of two options for this diet.
The first option is intended for patients without excess weight. In this case, the caloric content and composition of the diet are within normal limits. Up to 2600 kcal per day should be consumed, drink no more than 1,2 liters of liquid (including drinks and soups).
The second option is more limited. The daily rate will consist of 2200 kcal, the liquid remains in the same volume. The basis of nutrition should be vegetables in a soft boiled form, periodically uncooked are allowed. Significantly reduce the need for carbohydrates and fats.
The list of products and nutritional rules remain typical for table No. 10. Coarse fiber of plant foods and meat, it is desirable to boil before further cooking. Food does not salt, you can use pure sugar up to 50 g per day.
You need to exclude products with oxalic acid, a high content of fat and essential oils, simple carbohydrates. Products that excite the central nervous system also remain banned (spices, tonic drinks).
Cereals, cottage cheese and plant foods with coarse fibers should be chopped, boiled, wiped. The amount of bread increases significantly (up to 300 g), but it should not be fresh. You can eat inedible dough, biscuits, yeast-free pastries. Under the taboo are: shortbread and puff pastry, sweet buns, bakery shops.
Meat by-products are added to the menu, they must be boiled before further use. They are allowed to bake, stew and eat with a side dish, add to homemade cakes.
The diet can change or stop completely only after approval of the doctor.
Patients who completed one of the Pevzner programs note, in addition to restoring their health, a slight correction in volume and an improvement in the appearance of the skin. It is not worth it to resort to such methods yourself or adjust them.
Diseases from the cardiovascular system are people of advanced age and young. WHO statistics note that along with diabetes, heart diseases are “getting younger”, i.e. affect more and more young people. The root cause of this is a sedentary lifestyle, improper and excessive nutrition, smoking.
After recovery and the end of the prescribed diet, it is important to maintain a healthy lifestyle, add more walks or physical education, monitor nutrition. Get rid of the “garbage” at ease: E-supplements, fast food, dyes, excess fat, so as never to return to therapeutic diets.