Medicine has successfully learned to deal with a huge number of infections. But there still remains the same huge number of pathogens that affect both children and adults. Severe diseases caused by viruses, fungi or bacteria require long-term treatment and recovery. Drug therapy, which is mandatory for infections, often reduces the overall immunity and resistance to new diseases. In order for the patient not to fall into this vicious circle, a special therapeutic diet №13 is prescribed.
Application and purpose of the diet
Diet №13 is also known as the table 13. It was compiled by Soviet scientist Manuel Pevzner, who devoted his life to the study of dietology and the connection of the diet with various diseases. From the middle of the twentieth century and until now, this power supply system is used in severe infectious diseases.
Table number 13 is prescribed for pneumonia, acute bronchitis, whooping cough, bronchiolitis. It also helps patients who have undergone surgery on the thyroid gland, bones and soft tissues to recover faster. Particularly gentle food laid patients with any pathological processes that are accompanied by suppuration.
The therapeutic diet is applied during bed rest. Such meals can last no more than two weeks. If the patient quickly goes on the mend and does not need food elimination, the diet is stopped. If no improvement is observed, the patient’s menu should be adjusted by the attending doctor.
The purpose of the diet is to restore the general strength of the patient, increase resistance to infections, strengthen immunity. Through the three types of sparing food supported the work of the digestive system.
Terms of supply
Infectious diseases greatly deplete the body, and in combination with antibiotics significantly weaken it. In case of bronchitis, pneumonia or other diseases, it is important to fill the lack of useful components and maintain vitality.
Diet number 13 is designed in such a way that the internal organs are not damaged, and the need for energy is replenished. Reduced load on the digestive tract, liver, kidneys, heart. Particular attention is paid to the therapeutic method of cleansing the body from harmful microorganisms, toxins, excess fluid.
The diet excludes indigestible food, products that cause processes of decay, fermentation, gases. The diet of the patient should consist of food rich in vitamins, protein. The volume of liquids is increasing, per day it accounts for 2-2,5 liters.
Patient food should be gentle. There are three types of maintenance:
- Chemical. That is, the composition of the food should be as easily digestible as possible. The first dishes should be light, low in fat, vegetables well boiled. All food should not irritate the digestive system and nervous system; acute, sour, and very salty foods are excluded.
- Mechanical implies the consistency of food served. On the thirteenth diet it is necessary to chop food well, wipe it, and boil it. Food should be homogeneous mass, in the form of porridge and mashed potatoes. It is forbidden to fry and bake, diet recipes should consist of boiled or steamed products.
- Thermal sparing food internal organs is achieved due to the optimal temperature of the food served. Cold drinks and dishes should have a temperature not lower than 150, hot drinks – not higher than 650.
In order not to overload the digestive organs and the heart, it is forbidden to overeat. The patient should eat small portions at approximately equal intervals. It is advisable to plan the diet so that 6 comes out small meals a day.
The rate of salt for the patient depends on his condition. If the disease is not accompanied by vomiting, profuse sweating – up to 10 g of sodium chloride is supposed per day. If complications of the disease lead to loss of moisture, the amount of salt is slightly increased. With edema, irregular stool, constant thirst, the salt norm decreases to 6 g.
To cleanse the body and remove harmful substances, you need to increase the amount of water consumed. It helps cells recover faster, remove stagnant fluid in them. It is not recommended to drink with food and at bedtime.
During exacerbations of the disease or recovery after surgery, coarse fiber, hard-to-digest food, and unhealthy flavors should be avoided. The menu should consist of natural products, lean meat and fish, boiled vegetables.
From the list of products and dishes you need to exclude:
- lamb, fatty pork, lard, ham;
- fatty fish species, caviar;
- fried eggs, hard boiled;
- smoked meat, canned food, marinades;
- vegetables and fruits in their raw form, with coarse skin;
- radish and radish, all kinds of mushrooms;
- fresh pastries, baking, puff pastry, fresh bread, rye;
- onions, garlic, cucumbers and white cabbage;
- cream, spicy and fatty cheeses, fat sour cream, whole milk;
- beans, barley groats, corn, pearl barley, millet;
- confectionery, chocolate, sweets;
- cocoa, strong tea, black coffee.
The list of non-recommended products can be replenished if the patient has complications. Infectious diseases are often accompanied by stool disorders. If there is diarrhea, you need to exclude everything sweet, dairy, cold. In case of constipation, on the contrary, you should add prunes, boiled beets, freshly squeezed juices from raw vegetables, sweet juices to the menu.
For bronchitis, pneumonia, recovery, it is recommended to prepare:
- Low-fat meat, poultry and fish – they can only be boiled or steamed. Products from minced meat are allowed, but without pepper, onion and garlic. Skin and bones must be removed.
- First courses are obligatory for every lunch. They can be cooked in vegetable broth, meat or fish secondary. It is recommended to add vegetables, vermicelli, dumplings, egg flakes. You can cook soups with allowed cereals: oatmeal, buckwheat, rice. Cereals in this case should be boiled as much as possible.
- Porridge and puddings – they can be made from semolina, oatmeal, buckwheat or rice. Porridge should be viscous, soft, not crumbly. It is advisable to wipe them through a sieve before use.
- Low-fat dairy products – must be used in limited quantities. It is allowed to drink kefir, yogurt, acidophilus. Low-fat sour cream and unsalted butter can be added to dishes. Cottage cheese and grated hard cheese are allowed.
- Wheat crackers, dried bread, dry biscuit and biscuits.
- Boiled vegetables – you can cook mashed potatoes, stews, puddings and soufflé from them. Recommended use: beets, carrots, potatoes, zucchini, pumpkin, squash, cauliflower, broccoli.
- Natural drinks – you can make compotes of fresh and dried fruits (drink without fruits), jelly, herbal decoctions, fruit drinks. You can only sweeten it if recommended by a doctor.
If the infection passes on the background of other diseases (diabetes, anemia, gastritis, ulcers, etc.), the final list of permissible products should make a doctor. Arbitrarily adding products to the menu is strictly prohibited, as this may complicate the disease.
Since the list of prohibited foods is wide, it is recommended to make a menu in advance. Planning will allow you to choose the right recipes on time and stock up on the necessary ingredients.
The menu for the week for the table №13 may look as follows.
In the morning: mashed buckwheat with meatballs from a rabbit.
Snack: carrot mousse.
For lunch: veal and cauliflower soup puree, crackers.
Snack: apricot juice.
Dinner: zucchini home-made caviar, a slice of boiled chicken.
In the morning: liquid semolina with milk, weak tea.
Snack: mashed baked apple.
For lunch: carrot, potato and sweet pepper soup.
Snack: cowberry compote, a slice of dry biscuit.
Dinner: potato casserole, chamomile tea.
Bedtime: Compote or juice.
In the morning: cottage cheese casserole, tea with milk.
Snack: currant jelly.
At lunch: soup with fish and finely chopped greens.
Dinner: Greek with beef, a little sour cream.
In the morning: grated rice porridge, tea with crackers.
Snack: quince jelly.
At lunch: cream soup of tomatoes and cauliflower.
Snack: compote with dryers.
Dinner: fish dumplings, braised zucchini.
Bedtime: linden tea.
In the morning: carrot and apple puree, tea.
At lunch: soup with buckwheat, a little sour cream and crackers.
Snack: low-fat grated curd.
Supper: fish souffle, compote from plums.
Before going to bed: a decoction of chamomile.
In the morning: semolina porridge with milk, tea.
Snack: apple jelly.
For lunch: mashed rice soup and tomato.
Snack: plum compote.
Dinner: rabbit meatballs in sour cream.
Bedtime: sour milk.
In the morning: carrot and semolina pudding, weak green tea.
Snack: drying with broth hips.
At lunch: beet liquid puree, crackers.
Snack: cranberry mousse.
Dinner: chicken pudding, boiled potatoes.
Bedtime: linden tea.
Cooking for a diet number 13 takes time and requires attention. The main task in drawing up the menu is to diversify food using a minimum of products. The patient needs more healthy ingredients, so the diet should be diluted as much as possible with healthy foods.
Cranberry mousse is not only a delicious dessert, but also healthy. Cranberries are rich in rare vitamin PP, potassium, iodine, vitamin B. To prepare one portion of the dish, you will need 50 g of washed berries to be rubbed through a fine sieve and left to drain. Put the pulp into water and cook for 5 minutes, strain.
Into the resulting broth, introduce diluted gelatin and simmer over low heat. After boiling add cranberry juice into it and cool to room temperature. Beat the liquid with a mixer until lush foam, then pour into containers and place in the refrigerator. Before serving, place the dishes with mousse in hot water for a few minutes and put on a saucer.
A soufflé of fish is suitable as a second dish and diversifies the menu. It will require boiling the fillets of any lean fish, cool it and skip twice through a meat grinder. Separately, fry a few tablespoons of flour in a pan, then dissolve it in cold milk, pour the resulting liquid into boiling milk and cook to a state of liquid sour cream.
Add the egg yolks (1 pieces per 100 g of fish), milk mixture, a little butter, salt to the fish mass. Beat the remaining proteins into the foam and add to the minced meat, mix. Place the resulting mass in molds and cook for a couple.
Zucchini puree soup is cooked quickly and requires a minimum of ingredients. For it you need to peel a large zucchini (for a single serving) from the skin and seeds, cut it into cubes and boil it in a small amount of water. When the zucchini is cooked, cool slightly, beat it with a blender and add 100 g of milk. Again, bring to a boil all and pour two tablespoons of semolina. Cook all until fully prepared. When serving, sprinkle with wheat breadcrumbs.
The table number 13 is assigned for a short period. During the passage of the diet the patient gains strength, restores the work of internal organs, cleanses the body from harmful deposits and toxins. Recovery and rehabilitation after surgical interventions are faster, the period of drug therapy is shortened.
During the diet, patients are advised to comply with bed rest or half-bed rest. It is forbidden to lift weights, overstrain, tire. It is advisable to ventilate the room in which the patient is located every day, and during the ventilation itself, it must be transferred to another room.
At the end of the patient’s diet, they are transferred to another food, most often the table is laid №11 or №15. Strict adherence to all rules and requirements provide the best therapeutic effect from the technique and quick recovery.