A special diet for complex therapy for kidney diseases was created by a Russian gastroenterologist – Manuil Pevzner. The scientist noted the importance of properly built nutrition for a speedy recovery and restoration of internal organs. The diet he compiled is called table No. 7 and has several options. Depending on the condition of the patient, they are prescribed one or another menu option.
With the help of properly selected products and their preparation, it is possible to significantly ease the patient’s health and completely get rid of the disease. Consider how to do this.
Medical Diet Rules
The seventh diet is used for patients with a diagnosis of glomerulonephritis (nephritis) in chronic form or after acute exacerbations. It is also applicable for pyelonephritis. Table number 7 is not suitable for patients with kidney failure. Acute nephritis most often appears after an infectious disease. The main causative agents are streptococci. The acute form of this disease often becomes chronic. The disease progresses if the patient works or lives in adverse conditions, is often supercooled.
Table No. 7 is appointed only after a month of treatment of exacerbations. At the beginning of therapy, the patient is shown several days of fasting, in which only water (300 ml / day) is allowed to drink. After this, the 7 table is used, then 7b, 7c or other diets according to Pevzner (depending on the patient’s condition).
The task of the diet is to remove excess nitrogenous metabolic products from the patient’s body and reduce the burden on the kidneys. As a result of such measures, edema subsides, blood circulation and the functioning of internal organs are restored, the body is cleansed of harmful components.
The diet greatly limits the amount of salt and water, which provides maximum peace to the kidneys. A patient on the seventh diet should drink no more than a liter of water per day. The permissible salt norm should be determined by the doctor on the basis of analyzes. In addition, fats and proteins are limited, which also favorably affects the affected organs.
Extractive products are excluded. These substances stimulate the digestive organs and kidneys, provoke the accumulation of uric acid in the blood. Most of these components are found in mushrooms and muscle tissue: poultry, meat, fish. In a healthy body, they are excreted in the urine without a trace, but with impaired renal function (insufficiency, nephritis, stones, etc.), their increased concentration leads to complications.
7 diet does not completely exclude meat and fish, they can be eaten, but only after thorough heat treatment. First you need to boil them, and then cook in any other way: fry, stew, bake. About half of the extractives go into the broth, it is impossible to eat. After cooking, fish and meat can be used for a diet menu – up to 150 g per day.
In addition, oxalic acid is prohibited. It also causes complications and can cause exacerbations. It is mainly found in green foods, chocolate, spinach, rhubarb, raspberries, gooseberries, etc.
Eating on a diet should occur fractionally, at least four times a day. Additional mechanical processing of food (grinding) is not necessary. You can cook in any way (preferably use fried moderately). The serving temperature is not set: cold drinks, hot soups and the second are possible.
To finally get acquainted with the diet, consider the lists of products, menus for the week and recipes for therapeutic diet for jade.
To provide the patient with good nutrition, while not disrupting recovery, the menu includes:
- dairy products, cottage cheese, sour cream, milk, cream (all low fat);
- bread from bran flour or wheat, without salt;
- cabbage, cucumbers, carrots, potatoes, lettuce, other vegetables other than those prohibited;
- various cereals and pasta of any kind;
- any eggs: up to 2 proteins per day and half of the yolk;
- low-fat fish: zander, saffron cod, perch, pike, hake, carp and others;
- lean fillet: rabbit, chicken, veal, turkey, beef;
- berries and dried fruits;
- honey, jam, jam, marmalade, sugar, jelly, candy;
- cinnamon, vanillin, citric acid, refined oil, vinegar;
- weak teas and coffee, juices, decoctions of berries and herbs.
For a diet menu, you must definitely enter the first dishes once a day. Soups should be on vegetables, without fatty broth, with the addition of cereals or vermicelli. Salt is not used. It is useful to use dried apricots, apples, raisins, black currants. Among the valid components there is everything you need for a full and varied menu.
It is forbidden to use for dishes:
- flour with salt, including plain bread;
- mushroom broths, fish soup, rich broths on meat;
- cocoa and chocolate;
- strong tea, alcohol, soda;
- marinades, smoked meats and pickles;
- sausage, canned food, salted fish;
- any cheeses and too oily dairy products;
- spicy and salty spices;
- sorrel, spinach, rhubarb, any beans;
- mushrooms, radish, garlic, radish;
- onions (can only be in finished form);
- fat: fish, beef, mutton, pork.
Gradually, under the supervision of a doctor, the patient will be added one forbidden product to return it to a normal diet. Violation of dietary rules can significantly slow down the healing process. It is important to strictly comply with all requirements so as not to cause complications and not provoke an even greater restriction in the diet.
Menu for the seventh table
The menu for this diet can be changed by the therapist over the course of the disease. Concomitant diseases may impose additional restrictions on the list of products (for diabetes, pregnancy, etc.). Therefore, it is important to check with your doctor if there are any additional exceptions.
Consider a sample menu for the recovery period with glomerulonephritis (without exacerbation).
Breakfast: ripe baked apples with cinnamon and honey, tea with lemon.
Snack: dried apricots with cottage cheese.
Lunch: soup without meat with fresh cabbage, sour cream, rice with boiled meat.
Dinner: sautéed squash with carrots, boiled rice, fruit compote.
Breakfast: potato pancakes with sour cream, weak green tea.
Snack: ripe apricots or apples.
Lunch: noodle soup with vegetables, buckwheat porridge, fresh vegetable salad.
Supper: braised cabbage, separately a piece of baked chicken.
Breakfast: oatmeal with milk and honey, weak tea.
Snack: cabbage salad, cucumbers and carrots.
Lunch: okroshka on kefir (without radishes and sausages), barley porridge with butter.
Dinner: cabbage rolls, sour cream, salt-free bread.
Breakfast: protein omelet, grated carrot and dried apricots salad with sour cream, chicory coffee.
Snack: grapefruit, unsweetened yogurt.
Lunch: milk soup with buckwheat, meat cutlet with mashed cauliflower.
Dinner: roast without meat, freshly squeezed juice from carrots and apples.
Breakfast: pancakes (without salt), jam, chicory with milk.
Snack: fruit salad.
Lunch: beetroot soup, mashed potatoes, coleslaw and carrot salad.
Dinner: carp baked in the oven with vegetables (pre-boil the fish a little).
Breakfast: cereal with semolina milk, tea with lemon.
Snack: cottage cheese with dried apricots.
Lunch: tomato puree soup, meat patty.
Dinner: beef stew with potatoes.
Breakfast: soft-boiled eggs, cucumber and tomato salad, tea with milk.
Snack: fresh juice from vegetables or berries, raisins.
Lunch: diet borsch, sour cream, salt-free bread.
Supper: stuffed pepper, fresh fruit compote.
Hardest to find in stores bread without the use of salt. In most cases, there is no composition on the product at all. It is not recommended for patients to eat such bread, as there may be other prohibited ingredients in the composition. Dietary bread can be prepared at home, in the oven or bread maker.
Salt-free bread: slightly heat up 250 ml of whey and pour 2 teaspoons of dried yeast into it. Sift 400 g flour (wheat or bran) here and pour 1 tablespoon of oil. Knead the dough and leave for 40 minutes. Knead the risen dough and let it rise again. The last time to knead and place in the form, again wait until it rises. Place the pastry in the oven or bread machine for 50-60 minutes.
In the network you can find recipes for such bread to your taste. In general, salt can be replaced with citric acid in every bread recipe. It is better to use yeast-free pastries.
Yeastless cakes: stir a teaspoon of citric acid in one glass of water. Separately sift 2,5 cups of flour and pour it gently into the water. If desired (if tolerated), you can add sweet peppers or tomatoes. Leave the mixed dough for half an hour. Then form cakes and fry them in a pan.
7 diet is prescribed after “hungry” days in the period of exacerbation, on the third or fourth day. Before the diet, the patient drinks only water in limited quantities. Use this table to treat severe acute and chronic nephritis. The task of the diet is to sparing the kidneys, removing harmful substances, and relieving edema.
The patient is prescribed mainly plant foods, those types of vegetables, herbs and fruits that are contraindicated for table No. 7 are excluded. Salt is completely eliminated, proteins are very limited. The allowable volume of water should be dictated by the doctor, the volume of fluid per day should correspond to the amount of urine in the previous day. This is approximately 400 ml of water, teas, juices, soups are taken into account.
Meat and fish are allowed no more than 70 g per day, in boiled and additionally processed form. Only low-fat varieties are allowed. Cottage cheese and dairy products can be consumed in the same volume, but only if fish and meat are excluded. That is, there should be one thing per day: dairy products or meat. It is also allowed only half an egg a day, it is better to take only proteins.
Of the cereals allowed rice (limited) and sago. Bean and fatty broths are strictly prohibited. From drinks you can drink natural juices, weak teas and decoctions.
In the morning: carrot zrazy, ripe grated apple, a cup of tea.
Snack: berry jelly, dried apricots.
At lunch: vegetable vegan broth, a little sour cream, salt-free scone.
Snack: black currant jelly.
In the evening: stewed cabbage with tomato paste, potato pancake.
At night: a rosehip drink.
Due to the serious condition of the patient, it is very important to follow all the rules of the diet. The use of prohibited ingredients, a large amount of water and salt can again lead to exacerbation.
After improving the health of the patient is transferred to another diet: №7, №7б and others.
This option is used if nephritis is mild or after the 7 table. The purpose of the diet is the same: to ensure peace for the kidneys, remove puffiness, restore the work of the affected organ.
The 7b table differs from the previous diet only in the amount of protein allowed. On the day you can eat 125 g of fish fillet or meat, or replace meat dishes with dairy products in the same amount. It is also allowed to eat one egg or two protein without yolks. The permissible amount of water grows to one liter, but you need to monitor the balance of fluid consumed and withdrawn: they must match. If the balance is disturbed, this should be reported to the doctor.
The rest of the rules of the diet and the list of products are the same as the number 7. There is a need a little, 4-6 times, only permitted products without the use of salt.
After a cycle of seventh diets, the patient often loses most of his protein in the urine. Given the fact that the diet greatly limits this component, the body feels its strong shortage – nephropathy. Also, this problem is very “relevant” for pregnant women. The 7 diet is prescribed to make up for the missing nutritional components. As a result of this treatment, the patient (or the pregnant woman) is rehabilitated with protein metabolism, edema goes away, and the work of the kidneys is normalized.
The chemical composition of the menu will be shifted towards proteins. The ration for nephropathy is the same as for table No. 7b with a small addition of permitted ingredients. Mostly plant foods (except prohibited species), without salt, according to 125 g of dairy or meat products per day. Liquids, taking into account first courses and drinks, should be approximately 800 ml. Sugar intake is limited (50 g per day).
The rules of the diet remain unchanged: fractional nutrition, less fluid, refusal of alcohol. Several times a week you can drink a weak natural coffee with milk. The menu includes pasta and cereals (as in No. 7), seafood. For pregnant women, the diet may vary slightly depending on the condition of the patient and the fetus.
After tangible rehabilitation of the patient, a No. 7 diet or other proper nutrition is prescribed.
After hemodialysis, diet number 7 is prescribed. The goal of clinical nutrition is to provide the patient with a complete diet (2500 kcal or more), given renal failure.
The chemical composition of the diet is completely balanced, there are carbohydrates, proteins (60 g) and fats. The latter must be animals at 70%. Limited products with essential oils, extractive substances, potassium: cherries, currants, bananas, cereals. Salt is not used. If for a long time there is no edema and jumps in blood pressure, the patient is allowed to 3 g of salt.
The necessary components and amino acids should come from meat, fish (125 g per day) and plant foods. Dairy products are limited. Combining milk with meat and fish in one day is not recommended.
The volume of the first dish should not exceed 250 ml. Exclude rich broths. Sometimes you can cook milk soups, the first with cereals can be eaten up to 3 once a week. Mostly they cook vegetable broths, borscht and soups. On the day it is allowed to eat up to 3 pieces of chicken eggs (preferably only soft-boiled).
Fully exclude: cocoa, canned food, pickles and smoked meats, chocolate, pastries with cream, spicy and fatty, cheeses and legumes.
The entire cycle of the seventh diets according to Pevzner is not recommended to be used often by healthy people. Since such a diet is not considered complete, it may not be useful for healthy kidneys and other organs. Periodically, the prevention of jade using the table number 7, but the course should not last more than 2 weeks.
Any variant of the seventh diet requires care and responsibility on the part of the patient. If there is any doubt about a particular product (whether or not), it is best to ask a doctor. Products and goods without the specified composition are not recommended. It is also better to abandon exotic vegetables, herbs and fruits.
With frequent increases in temperature and pressure, turbidity of urine, loss of appetite, sweating, you should contact your urologist or nephrologist.