Most aesthetic defects in the appearance of women help to correct chemical peels for the face, the types of which have features. Some acid exfoliation procedures are recommended to solve the problems of young skin, for example, acne or acne, for others, young age is a contraindication. Some peels with acid solutions help to achieve a noticeable, but painful rejuvenation, others act gently, have a cumulative effect and require frequent repetition. We will talk about the nuances of acid procedures, their benefits and frequency of use below.
Piggy bank of advantages of chemical peels
The mechanism of skin renewal by chemical exfoliation is the same for all types of such exfoliation. Its basis is the application to the skin of natural or synthesized acids in a medical (weak) concentration. Acidic solutions cause an artificial chemical burn of thin skin of the face I, rarely II degree.
Each type of chemical peeling, even light for decorative purposes, destroys the upper dead layer of the epithelium. Cosmetic formulations for anti-aging exfoliation penetrate even deeper – to the middle dermal layer, and peeling products for cardinal rejuvenation, whose action is comparable to surgical lifting, work extremely deep – at the border of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Injured by acid solutions, the skin tends to regenerate as soon as possible – peeling provokes a change in the internal processes in the epidermis. The synthesis of protein threads of collagen and elastin starts, oxygen and nutrition enter the cells, blood flow accelerates, clogged pores are cleaned and thinner.
The positive and quick effect of chemical peels is noticed by everyone who prefers them over mechanical or hardware exfoliation. For 2-3 procedures of acid rejuvenation, signs of age disappear from the face (facial wrinkles and folds, rosacea, age spots), the effects of dermatological diseases (inflammation, skin roughness after acne or acne, redness after infection with the subcutaneous mite Demadecosis), trauma marks (scars scars, striae). Physical peels can achieve the same aesthetic results. But it will be longer, more expensive and, in the case of some procedures, more painful.
All types of chemical peels create stressful conditions for skin renewal, but in the end their effect is positive and justified. The course of anti-aging procedures helps to improve complexion and smooth the skin, get rid of defects and increase the elasticity of the epidermis.
Chemical peels, regardless of type, have several common indications:
- problem skin with increased grease, comedones and foci of inflammation;
- the appearance of age spots as a consequence of photoaging or age-related skin changes;
- facial wrinkles and age-related wrinkles, tissue prolapse, sagging skin, changes in facial contours;
- enlarged and clogged pores;
- tuberosity of the skin after dermatological diseases;
- scars and scars after injuries or thermal burns;
- vascular “stars” on the face (rosacea);
- preparation for other cosmetic procedures.
All types of chemical face peeling have several common contraindications:
- exacerbation of the herpes virus and chronic diseases;
- insulin dependence;
- pregnancy and lactation;
- wounds, abrasions, scratches and cracks in the skin on the face;
- taking hormonal drugs;
- individual intolerance to peeling components;
- teenage years;
- recently completed a course of radiotherapy.
The choice in favor of a certain type of chemical peeling should not be independent. The least that arrogance leads to is a violation of the protocol of the procedure and its inefficiency. Sometimes inappropriate peeling results in serious complications for the skin and prolonged rehabilitation in a clinical setting.
Therefore, before deciding on a course of acid peels, consult a cosmetologist.
Before a chemical exfoliation session, ask a specialist to perform an allergy test on the active components of the drug. To do this, a drop of the product is applied to the inner fold of the elbow or delicate skin behind the ear. If an allergic reaction does not occur within 15 minutes, peeling is suitable.
A type of chemical peeling of the face depends on the depth of penetration of the acid preparation into the skin. Soft and gentle peelings are classified as superficial, peeling agents by age-related changes and hyperpigmentation are referred to as middle peels, and radical chemical lifts are considered as deep ones.
Easy peels: we act on the surface
Superficial peels are popular and available to perform even at home. This gentle and safe exfoliation is recommended as the main treatment for oily skin prone to acne, acne and ultraviolet pigmentation, as well as supporting care for women after 35 years.
The active components of surface peels penetrate no deeper than 0,06 mm of the epidermal layer, therefore their action is considered gentle and less traumatic. This is enough to exfoliate keratinized fiber, smooth out light facial wrinkles and irregularities after acne, narrowing and cleansing pores, lightening pigmentation. Light peels do not cause significant damage to the skin: the procedures are painless and do not require long rehabilitation – the skin heals within 5-7 days.
Superficial types of peelings do not imply special preparation of the skin. To achieve a noticeable and lasting effect, cleansing should be carried out in courses of 6-8 sessions with an interval of a week. Surface procedures can be repeated every 3 of the month from late October to early April.
Superficial chemical peels, the types of which are determined by the main acid in a cosmetic solution, quickly penetrate the skin and stimulate the production of collagen and elastin fibers. Compositions for easy exfoliation may contain natural fruit acids, for example, malic, citric, tartaric, or other keratolytics – salicylic, glycolic, lactic, almond, pyruvic, retinoic, azelaic, phytic and other types of acids. These compounds are known as alpha-hydroxyl or ANA acids, they gently destroy the dead epidermis and contribute to its renewal.
Very popular among surface peelings are:
- glycolic peeling. The glycolic acid exfoliation procedure is appreciated by cosmetologists and their clients for their painlessness, effectiveness and minimal risk of side effects. The molecule of the compound is so small that it can penetrate through the skin in seconds, causing the synthesis of protein filaments and the strengthening of intercellular membranes. Glycolic peeling transforms dry skin, moisturizing it and smoothing out a network of fine wrinkles .. Skin integuments become firm and elastic. Glycolic acid peeling – proven prevention of age-related changes and unwanted pigmentation;
- milk peeling. One of the weakest cleansing procedures recommended for owners of sensitive skin. Peeling with lactic acid helps to refresh the complexion and even out the first facial wrinkles;
- almond peeling with phenoxyglycolic acid obtained from bitter almond grains. A special indication for almond exfoliation is rosacea (the appearance on the skin of extensive redness, painful papules and pustules), accompanying signs of photoaging, acne and small wrinkles.
Depending on the sensitivity of the skin and indications for exfoliation, the surface peeling procedure lasts from 15 minutes to half an hour. During the session, the woman experiences a slight tingling of the face and a tolerant burning sensation. The day after peeling, the skin turns red, but within 5 days this reaction disappears.
On the border of the surface and middle peels there are 3 exfoliation of the mixed type: retinoic (yellow) peeling, salicylic peeling and Jessener peeling. They are also well tolerated by the skin, but the components of the peeling agents penetrate deeper than the hardened epidermis.
- retinoic peeling is multicomponent. The composition of preparations for “yellow” exfoliation includes several acids, the main one being a synthetic analogue of vitamin A. Retinol normalizes the production and distribution of melanocytes in the subcutaneous tissue, the accumulation of which provokes pigmentation. Therefore, retinoic peeling is considered an effective way to get rid of brown spots on the face. “Companions” of retinol in the “yellow” peeling complement the aesthetic transformation: phytic acid slows down cell aging, kojic acid acts as an antioxidant, azelaic disinfects and relieves inflammation, and vitamin C brightens the skin and starts collagen synthesis. As a result, universal retinoic peeling erases many diverse shortcomings from a woman’s face;
- salicylic peeling dissolves the layers of the dead epidermis, exfoliates old cells, has an antiseptic and antibacterial effect. Molecules of salicylic acid easily penetrate deep into the protective skin barrier and suppress internal infections;
- Jessner peeling. This “youth cocktail” based on salicylic, lactic and retinoic acid is especially appreciated by Hollywood stars for their speed of action and minimal rehabilitation. For surface exfoliation, the drug is applied to the face in one layer. This is enough to deeply moisturize the skin, improve its microrelief, narrow pores, lighten pigment spots and visually smooth out light scars.
Gold standard: mid peels
Median exfoliation works at a depth of 0, 45mm of the epidermal layer, i.e. affects the keratinized epithelium and papillary dermis. Peeling of the middle type is allowed for women only after 30-35 years. They allow you to lighten serious age-related pigmentation, remove deep folds, thin the skin, fight keratosis and sagging.
Medium chemical peels are called non-surgical lifting: their effect is comparable to a hardware facelift or gold thread reinforcement. For the most part, these are uncomfortable procedures that hurt women with a high threshold of sensitivity. Sometimes such acid exfoliation requires application anesthesia. Cosmetic manipulations are carried out by more aggressive acids of high concentration, so the healing period of the skin after mid peels stretches to 3-4 weeks.
A mid-chemical peeling session lasts from 20 minutes to half an hour. During the procedure, burning may increase. The next day, the skin of the face becomes red, tightened and swollen. Dryness persists for 1-2 weeks. In parallel, peeling and detachment of the injured upper epidermis occurs. At this time, it is important to follow the rules of post-peeling care, use wound healing creams and not remove the crusts. After a month, the skin is renewed and returned to normal.
Beauticians recommend performing median chemical peels with a course of 4-6 procedures with an interval of at least 2 weeks. At the time of skin rehabilitation, it is better to take a vacation and recover at home. The ideal season for median exfoliation is late fall or winter: periods of low solar activity. Without prejudice to the skin, a maximum of 2 courses of serious acid peels are performed per year.
35% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) peeling is the “gold standard” for median exfoliation. Such manipulation is performed only in the cabin. Doing the procedure yourself at home is risky and can lead to complications. TCA is an optimal anti-aging peeling that stimulates deep cell renewal and visual rejuvenation for at least 5 years. Preparation for it begins 2 weeks before the first procedure. The skin is thinning and loosening with special serums based on glycolic or retinoic acids. Categorical contraindications for TCA are dermatological diseases (for example, vitiligo), a tendency of the skin to form keloid scars, and rosacea.
Acid lifting: deep peels
Special chemical peeling for the face, the species of which are not numerous and are even forbidden for use in some European countries, experts compare with plastic surgery. Manipulations are carried out non-surgical method, but the used components of peeling products injure the skin of the face no less than a scalpel.
Deep chemical exfoliation “removes” 0,6 mm of the epidermal layer almost before the onset of subcutaneous fat. The procedure is performed with aggressive phenolic acid and croton oil and, being dangerous, is performed only by cosmetologists with anesthesia in aesthetic medicine clinics.
Phenol, like a laser, destroys the entire epidermis and most of the dermis. The face becomes an open and painful wound, the healing of which takes at least six months. Phenol peeling can be performed only 1 once a year and not more often than 3 times in a lifetime.
Deep chemical peeling corrects the most complex and long-standing appearance defects: scars, scars, deep age wrinkles and old age spots. As a result of just one phenolic procedure, the skin is rejuvenated, the oval of the face is tightened, and the result of exfoliation lasts for decades.
The choice of a suitable chemical peeling is best entrusted to a professional cosmetologist. The purpose of exfoliation is usually based on the indications, skin type, patient age and state of health, as well as its financial capabilities.