Fats

Fats are organic compounds consisting of glycerol esters, fatty acids and highly bioactive substances. Fats and fat-like substances are denoted by the general term – lipids.

In the human body, most lipids are concentrated in the subcutaneous tissue and in adipose tissue. These compounds are contained in the muscle tissue, liver, brain. In plants, fats “live” in fruits and seeds. In the plant world, the so-called oilseeds are the most saturated with lipids.

Terminology complexities

The important role of fats in the human body can be discussed for a long time and much, especially since there are many little-known and very entertaining facts. But for a start, it is important to understand the terminology so as not to get confused in, so to speak, the “kinship” of lipids.

Lipid is the main term. They denote the substance with a fat-soluble molecule. Simply put, all fats, fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins and phospholipids in cell membranes are lipids.

Fatty acids are the building blocks of the body. They are the “keepers” of energy, which the body, if necessary, the body converts into fuel.

Triglycerides are lipids with a structure of three fatty acids and glycerol molecules. All triglycerides are divided into 2 groups: saturated (found in meat and dairy products) and unsaturated acids (in plant foods). From the point of view of anatomy, the fat contained under the skin is also triglycerides.

Sterol (or sterol) is a subgroup of steroids that work on the principle of hormones. In the body, they play the role of the structural part of the cells (there is in the membrane). Take part in the metabolism, affect the level of cholesterol in the body: plant sterols block the absorption of “bad” cholesterol in the intestine.

Phospholipids – they are assigned a structural role in the body. The cell membrane consists of phospholipids. That is, the performance of all cells in the body depends on this type of lipid. Most phospholipids are found in the membranes of the liver, brain, and heart cells. They are an important element of the membrane of the nerve trunks, are involved in blood coagulation and tissue regeneration.

Chemical and biological role

Speaking about the role of lipids for a living organism, it is first of all important to note that lipids are part of the cells of almost all types of tissues, and together with carbohydrates they provide vital activity and energy metabolism. In addition, accumulating in the subcutaneous layers and around organs (in reasonable doses) create a protective pillow: provide protection against mechanical damage and create thermal insulation.

And the most well-known role – the cells of adipose tissue play the role of a reservoir of nutrients, creating energy reserves of the body. By the way, the oxidation of 1 gram of fat gives the body 9 kilocalories. For comparison: the oxidation of a similar amount of proteins or carbohydrates produces only 4 kilocalories of energy.

Natural lipids are more than 60 types of fatty acids with different properties. A fatty acid molecule is a special “chain” of interconnected carbon atoms surrounded by hydrogen atoms. The length of this “chain” depends on the properties of fats. The longer the “chain”, the more solid fats are formed. Liquid oils have a molecular structure with short “chains” of atoms. The melting point of fats also depends on the molecule: the higher the molecular weight, the harder the fats are heated, and the worse they melt, the more difficult it is to digest.

The quality of assimilation fats are divided into three groups. Representatives of the first digested by the body at 97-98 percent. Such fats melt at temperatures below 36,6 degrees. If melting requires 37 degrees and above, these fats are digested in the amount of 90 percent. And only 70-80 percent of the substance is assimilated, if for melting it needs at least 50-60 degrees Celsius.

Classification of natural fats

Saturated Fat:

  • butter, milk fats;
  • meat, lard, animal fats;
  • palm, coconut and cocoa bean oil.

Unsaturated Fat:

  1. Monounsaturated:
    • olive oil;
    • peanut butter;
    • avocado;
    • olives;
    • poultry meat.
  2. Polyunsaturated:
    • fatty fish, fish oil;
    • linseed, rapeseed, sunflower, corn, cottonseed, soybean oil;
    • oil from wheat germ, walnut;
    • nuts and seeds.

The difference between saturated and unsaturated fats is in the chemical structure, and, therefore, their functions are also different.

Saturated fats are not as beneficial to the body as unsaturated fats. They negatively affect lipid metabolism, the functioning of the liver and, as nutritionists believe, are the cause of atherosclerosis.

The highest concentration of unsaturated fats is in vegetable oils. The most striking in their chemical and biological properties are polyunsaturated fatty acids. They are vital substances for the body and are included in the list of substances indispensable for humans. And although they are sometimes called vitamin F, they actually differ in properties from real vitamins. Contained in all vital organs: in the brain, heart, liver, reproductive organs. The high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the embryo, the body of a newborn baby and in breast milk has also been proven. The most saturated vitamin F is fish oil.

The role of polyunsaturated fats:

  • contribute to the elimination of cholesterol from the body than help prevent atherosclerosis;
  • make the walls of blood vessels elastic and reduce their permeability;
  • contribute to the prevention of ischemia;
  • strengthen the protective functions of the body, produce resistance to various infections and ionizing radiation.

Deficiency of polyunsaturated fats is the cause of thrombosis of the coronary vessels.

According to the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, lipids are divided into 3 groups:

  1. With high bioactivity. The content of polyunsaturated acids in them – 50-80 percent. It is enough to use 20 g of fat to provide the body with essential acids. Sources: vegetable oils (corn, linseed, sunflower, hemp, soybean, cotton).
  2. With an average bioactivity. The content of polyunsaturated acids is below 50 percent. Daily need is contained in 50 g of lard, goose or chicken fat.
  3. With low bioactivity. It is butter and all types of milk fat, beef and mutton fat. They are not able to give the body the necessary rate of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Triglycerides, phospholipids and sterols

All fats in the body can be divided into 3 groups:

  • triglycerides;
  • phospholipid;
  • sterols.

Almost 100 percent of fat contained in the human body is in the form of triglyceride, 95 percent of dietary fat is also stored in this structure.

Triglyceride is a substance whose molecule consists of 3 fatty acids and 1 glycerin molecules. Depending on the presence or absence of hydrogen atoms in the composition, triglycerides are saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated.

The main role in the body – providing energy. Mostly stored in adipose tissue, but some content of triglycerides is inside the cells. An excessive amount of this type of lipid in the cells leads to the development of obesity. An excess of triglycerides in the liver tissues is fraught with fatty degeneration of the organ, and a high content in the muscle tissue accelerates the development of diabetes mellitus 2 type.

Phospholipids are represented only in 5 percent food. They can be dissolved in water and fats, thanks to this property, they can easily move through cell membranes. The most well-known phospholipid is lecithin, which is contained in the liver, eggs, peanuts, wheat germ, soy.

Phospholipids are necessary for the body to maintain the function of cell membranes. Violation in their structure leads to liver disease, a violation of blood coagulation, liver, cardiovascular disease.

Sterols are a group of substances that include cholesterol (high and low density lipoproteins), testosterone, cortisol, and vitamin D.

It is also important to note that in the lipid family there are 2 essential fatty acids for the human body, which it cannot produce on its own. This is linoleic and linolenic acid.

Linoleic is better known as Omega-6 fatty acid, and linolenic acid is known as omega-3 acid. Search for them best in seeds, nuts, oily marine fish.

Cholesterol

Cholesterol is an important component of most human tissues. He takes part in the creation of new cells, hormones, intercellular membranes, in the assimilation of vitamins, accumulates energy. But the beneficial role of cholesterol is preserved only as long as its content does not exceed the permissible norms (200-250 mg). Behind this feature, it turns from assistant to pest.

All the cholesterol present in the body forms two groups:

  • high density lipoproteins (“good” cholesterol);
  • low density lipoproteins (“bad” cholesterol).

“Bad” sterol particles are formed from fats derived from butter, very fatty meat, egg yolks and whole milk.

Daily in the body is produced within 1 g cholesterol. And almost all (0,8 g) is synthesized in the liver, and 0,2 g – in the remaining cells. In addition, another half a gram of cholesterol comes with food. It is this dose received from the outside of the substance that it is important to regulate, as much as possible, “driving” the sterol values ​​to normal.

How to adjust cholesterol?

Debugging cholesterol balance is not so difficult if you know the rules of nutrition. Here are some recommendations, the implementation of which will enhance health.

  1. Abandon refractory fats of animal nature.
  2. To exclude from the menu fried dishes and french fries.
  3. Eat no more 2-3 egg yolks per week.
  4. Give preference to lean meat.
  5. Reduce the amount of consumed fat milk.
  6. Two thirds of the daily diet to make up of plant foods rich in fiber.
  7. Eating garlic is a famous “fighter” with cholesterol.
  8. Drink lots of green tea.
  9. Introduce polyunsaturated fats into the diet.
  10. Take nicotinic acid, calcium, vitamin E and C.
  11. Eat fresh juices (beetroot, cucumber, carrot, apple, cabbage, orange, celery).
  12. Introduce foods rich in phytosterols (plant sterols that control cholesterol levels): wheat germ, wild rice bran, sesame, sunflower and pumpkin seeds, pistachios, flaxseeds, almonds, pine nuts, avocados, olive oil.

Learning, sharing

Biologists have conducted many experiments before they understood the principle of assimilation of fats by the body. In the 1960s, Robert Wolpenheim and Fred Matson from Procter-and-Gamble determined that fats in the gastrointestinal tract do not fully hydrolyze. That is, under the influence of water, only two molecules of triglyceride are split, the third remains unchanged.

First, the enzyme contained in saliva acts on fats. At the next stage, an enzyme produced by the pancreas is included in the work. After double treatment, fat is transported in portions to the small intestine. And what is interesting: portions of lipids enter the intestines not arbitrarily, but only after the corresponding signal, which the small intestine “sends” to the stomach. Nature has created the human digestive system in such a way that fatty foods do not enter the intestines until they process the previous portion. This explains the feeling of fullness and a “full stomach”, cleansed after overeating, in particular high-calorie foods. How the intestine transmits these smart signals to the stomach, biologists can not yet explain. But the fact remains.

Bile and bile acids help the body to finally process fats. They crush lipids into tiny particles that are again affected by the lipase enzyme. After the final hydrolysis, monoglycerides and fatty acids are formed in the body. They pass through the walls of intestinal cells and already in an updated form (in the form of fat droplets coated with protein) enter the blood to be transported throughout the body.

The blood contains a significant amount of lipids of different types. Blood fat saturation varies throughout life. The level of “fat” is influenced by the nature of nutrition, age, and body condition. An increase in the rate of neutral fats suggests that the body improperly uses lipids from food.

Other causes of increased blood lipids:

  • starvation;
  • diabetes;
  • acute hepatitis;
  • exudative diathesis;
  • nephrosis.

Hyperlipimy (an increase in the “fatty” level) is also characteristic of intoxications, abnormal liver functions, and diseases of the organs of the endocrine system. Fat absorption is impaired in diseases of the digestive system. One of the reasons for lipid digestion is insufficient bile production.

The process of metabolism of fats in the human body is directly dependent on the exchange of carbohydrates. In cases of regular consumption of high-calorie foods (rich in carbohydrates) without the necessary energy expenditure, joules obtained from carbohydrates are converted into fats. Fighting obesity with food should be reduced calorie intake. In the menu, focus on proteins, fats, vitamins and organic acids.

Pathological obesity is a consequence of disorders of the neurohumoral mechanisms of regulation of carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Excessive accumulation of lipids in cells and tissues flows into dystrophy.

Fats in food

Biologists have told: approximately one-fifth of the calories needed for energy production, a person should receive at the expense of fats. The daily need is determined taking into account several parameters:

  • age;
  • Lifestyle;
  • health status.

People leading active lives, playing sports (especially professionally) need a diet with increased caloric content. Elderly, sedentary, with a tendency to corpulence should “cut” the saturation of their diet.

For health, it is important to consider not only the amount of fat in the diet, but also the ratio between the consumption of different types of lipids. And remember some recommendations of nutritionists:

  • saturated acids worsen fat metabolism, liver health, increase the risk of atherosclerosis;
  • unsaturated fatty acids stabilize metabolic processes, remove “bad” cholesterol from the body;
  • the abuse of unsaturated fats (vegetable oils) causes upset gastrointestinal function, the formation of stones in the bile ducts.

Ideally, a “fat” diet should consist of 40% vegetable oils and 60% animal fats. In old age – more vegetable fats.

The ratio of fatty acids in the diet:

  • monounsaturated – 50% of all fats;
  • polyunsaturated – 25%;
  • saturated – 25%.

Trans fats – unsaturated fats artificially translated into saturated. Used in the food industry (sauces, mayonnaise, confectionery), although nutritionists strictly forbid them to use it. Fats that have undergone intense heating and oxidation (chips, french fries, donuts, belyashes, and deep-fried foods) also harm the body.

Harmful fats:

  • saturated fats;
  • cholesterol;
  • trans fats.

An overabundance of “bad” lipids causes:

  • obesity;
  • diabetes;
  • cardiovascular diseases.

Saturated fats have a simpler molecular structure and are harmful to the human body, as they cause blockage of blood vessels.

Examples of products containing saturated fat:

  • margarine;
  • animal fat (kidney, white on meat, interior, butter);
  • coconut and palm oil;
  • fat meat;
  • dairy;
  • fast food;
  • confectionery.

As for meat and dairy products, the body desperately needs this food, but preference should be given to low-fat options.

The higher the amount of saturated fat intake – the higher the level of cholesterol in the blood. Cholesterol is mainly produced in the liver and is needed in small amounts by the body. Exceeding the norm leads to the development of heart disease and vascular problems.

Trans fats are liquid oils that have been artificially converted to solid form (margarine, cooking oil). Their task in cooking is to extend the shelf life of perishable foods. Present in foods with a high glycemic index of carbohydrates.

Healthy fats

Healthy fats are 2 types of unsaturated lipids: monounsaturated (omega-9) and polyunsaturated (omega-3, omega-6).

Omega-9, or oleic acid, contributes to the normal flow of vital processes in the body. With its lack of cell membranes weaken, disturbed balance in metabolism. It is found in large quantities in olive oil.

Useful properties of Omega-9:

  • possesses immunostimulating properties;
  • prevents the development of malignant tumors in the female breast;
  • reduces rice development of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases;
  • regulates cholesterol levels;
  • protects against viruses and colds;
  • eliminates constipation, regulates the process of digestion;
  • improves memory;
  • relieves depression;
  • improves the condition of skin, nails, hair;
  • supplies energy.

Omega-3

Omega-3 play an important role in life, but the body itself is not produced. Affects the work of the brain, heart, joints, sharpens vision and reduces cholesterol. It has anti-inflammatory effect and the properties of a powerful antioxidant.

There are such products:

  • a fish;
  • sesame, rapeseed oil;
  • walnuts;
  • flaxseeds.

Useful properties of Omega-3:

  • speeds up the metabolism;
  • increases endurance;
  • activates the brain;
  • improves mood;
  • responsible for skin health;
  • promotes weight loss;
  • regulates hormonal balance.

Eat foods rich in Omega-3 acid, should be pregnant and prone to cancer. It is part of rehabilitation therapy after a heart attack, circulatory disorders in the brain, fractures, and autoimmune diseases. Used in cosmetics.

Omega-6

Omega-6 is found in sunflower, corn, soybean oils, wheat germ, pumpkin seeds, poppy seeds, sunflower seeds, walnuts. Insufficient amount leads to memory impairment, high blood pressure, frequent colds, skin diseases, chronic fatigue.

The human body is needed to reduce cholesterol, prevent and treat arthritis, protects nerve fibers from destruction (especially in diabetes), and relieves women from premenstrual syndrome. Without Omega-6, the body cannot produce prostaglandin Е1, which protects against premature aging, allergies and the development of heart disease.

Nutritionists advise to use Omega-3 and Omega-6 ranging from 1: 1 to 1: 4 – these proportions are optimal for the body.

Table of fat content in foods

Fat content in 100 g productProduct
Less than 20 gDairy products, low-fat cheeses, cereals, grains, legumes, offal, fish, seafood, mushrooms, eggs.
20-40 gSour cream, cottage cheese (homemade), pork, fatty chunks of beef, fatty fish, goose, sausages and sausages, canned fish, sweets, coconuts.
More than xnumxButter, margarine, fatty pork, duck, fish oil, nuts, seeds, smoked sausage, white chocolate, mayonnaise.

How to use: tips

  1. Abandon trans fat.
  2. Reduce the amount of saturated fat.
  3. Give preference to fats from natural products.
  4. Unrefined and raw oils are suitable only for dressing ready meals.
  5. Animal fats are suitable for frying.
  6. Store oil in a dark place in sealed containers.
  7. Eat marine fish and linseed oil regularly – rich in omega-Xnumx fats.
  8. The ratio of vegetable fats to animals – 1: 2, in old age – 2: 1.
  9. Cholesterol in the diet does not exceed 300 mg per day.
  10. The ratio of saturated fats to monounsaturated and polyunsaturated – 3: 4: 3.
  11. Fat in the daily diet should not exceed a third of the total calories.
  12. Source of saturated fat to choose among lean pieces of meat, the size of no more than a palm and from whole milk products.
  13. To get rid of excess fat when baking meat, use grills.
  14. Instead of sausages give preference to chicken breast and turkey.
  15. You can not completely abandon dairy – these products are extremely important for the body, including to control weight. But preference is better to give food with a lower fat content.
  16. Limit consumption of egg yolks to one per several days.
  17. Under normal conditions, the ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in the diet should match the proportion of 10: 12: 46.
  18. Most foods labeled “fat free” or “low fat” have a fairly high amount of carbohydrates.
  19. Read product labels. Be wary of foods containing palm oil or hydrogenated oils.

Individual daily requirement

For people who lead an active lifestyle, the consumption of fat should be reduced to 25% of the total daily caloric intake. To find out the rate of fat in grams, you can use the formula:

Total Fat (in g) = (Total Calories x 30%): 9

There is no time to bother with the solution of mathematical problems, then you can apply another, lighter formula:

1, 3 x your own weight = daily intake of fat.

The best sources of healthy fats:

  • nuts: walnuts, almonds, pistachios;
  • fish: salmon, tuna, mackerel, trout, herring;
  • plant foods: olives, avocados;
  • oils: olive, sunflower.

Daily need for fats:

  • for men – 70-154 g;
  • for women – 60-102 g;
  • children under one year – 2,2-2,9 g per kilogram of weight;
  • older than a year – 40-97

Deficiency and oversupply: what are the dangers

Probably no one needs to explain that excessive consumption of fatty foods leads to obesity. And the shortest way to overweight is “bad” trans fats.

Obesity is not only an aesthetic problem. Excess weight always goes together with a “bunch” of diseases. First of all, the cardiovascular system suffers from excess fatty tissue.

For obesity:

  • work of a liver and pancreas worsens;
  • development of oncological diseases is possible;
  • changes in the chemical composition of blood;
  • increases the risk of heart attacks, strokes, coronary heart disease;
  • hypertension and tachycardia appear;
  • it becomes difficult for the heart to “pump” blood through the body.

Obesity has become the number one problem worldwide. And last but not least, “thanks to” modern food, “stuffed” with saturated fats.

But no less problematic for the body is the lack of lipids. Weight-lifting women, or people who are overweight, sometimes completely eliminate all fats from their diets. At the same time, probably, none of them think that the total rejection of fat can cause a “set” of other, sometimes more serious problems than extra kilos.

In fact, the fats received a bad reputation not deservedly. More precisely, the “bad” are not all. Some (trans fats) really should be completely abandoned, but unsaturated ones should not be removed from the diet. True, here we must remember the measure.

Signs of shortage

  1. Dry skin.
    The upper ball of the skin began to peel and itch – it’s time to replenish the sebaceous glands, the function of which is to naturally moisturize the epidermis. Avocados, nuts, olive oil will help to fix the problem.
  2. Irritability and depression.
    Lack of lipids affects the mental state of a person. Increased cases of blues or vice versa anger, noticed incomprehensible mood swings? It is time to introduce sea fish and flaxseeds into the diet. The beneficial fats contained in them will make you calmer and kinder.
  3. Fast fatiguability.
    It’s only lunch now, and the energy has run out? No strength at all for anything? Most likely, the reason lies in the lack of fat, which is the main source of energy. 20 grams of coconut oil, drunk for breakfast with coffee, will help “cure” drowsiness and fatigue.
  4. The feeling of hunger does not leave.
    Recently ate, and in the stomach already rumbling? A clear sign of “defatting” the body. It is enough a little “good” fats to satisfy hunger. A slice of avocado, a bit of walnuts or a slice of fish will not affect the shape, but the body will be grateful for feeding.
  5. Freeze even in the heat?
    One of the functions of subcutaneous fat is to maintain a stable body temperature. For this reason, skinny freeze more often than fat people. In conditions of a sharp decrease in air temperature (out of the house in the cold), adipose tissue cells throw out a portion of warming heat for the whole body. Of course, it is not necessary to “build up” the sides and the stomach – to warm the body, a rather small subcutaneous layer of adipose tissue.
  6. Dispersion: Fatty acids, in particular Omega-3, play an indispensable role in the normal functioning of the brain. Lipid deficiency leads to a deterioration in brain activity. It is difficult for people with a lack of fat to collect their thoughts, keep their attention, concentrate on important things. A food rich in unsaturated fatty acids will help improve the condition.
  7. Is the weight in place?
    This, of course, sounds paradoxical, but in fact it is. People who are on a low-fat diet, it is difficult to get rid of excess. The fact is that according to nature, when the body does not receive fats, it begins to draw energy from other sources – proteins and carbohydrates. He takes strength from what he gets regularly and what he does not need to stock up on. Subcutaneous fats are kept as “NZ”, being afraid to spend the substance, the spent reserves of which have not yet been replenished.
  8. Vision worsened.
    Sharp vision impairment is often a signal of fat deficiency. A lack of Omega-3 acid leads to glaucoma and an increase in eye pressure. Consumption of trans fat also has a negative effect on the eyes – up to complete loss of vision.
  9. Joint pain.
    Relieve joint pain and prevent arthritis from developing under the power of fatty foods. But for such treatment it is important to choose the “right” fats. The source of beneficial lipids is better to choose salmon fillets, herring or sardines, olive oil and walnuts. But especially not to get involved in them also – remember that this is extremely high-calorie food.
  10. High cholesterol.
    The level of “bad” cholesterol directly depends on the indicators of “good”: the more the first, the less the second. You can increase the supply of “healthy” cholesterol by eating sea fish once a week. Simply put, to increase the “good” cholesterol, it is necessary to use “good” fats.
  11. Tired of crowded places?
    It also signals a potential fat deficiency. Fatigue from staying in stadiums or noisy parties due to sensory impairments in the body. To debug the level of noise susceptibility will help products containing Omega-3.
  12. Avitaminosis.
    Refusal from fatty foods is always vitamin A, D, E and K. These vitamins are fat soluble substances. That is, in order for the body to get them to learn, it needs fats. A great way to restore the vitamin balance is to add oil to the diet. Coconut is desirable, despite the fact that it belongs to saturated fats. But this is the best option for activating fat-soluble vitamins.

What should be the percentage of lipids in the body

In the human body 2 types of fat deposits are represented. This is actually the subcutaneous layer (visible) and the so-called visceral (around the internal organs). Calculating the percentage of fat in the body, take into account both types of adipose tissue. But internal reserves are more active in terms of metabolism than the greasy layer under the skin. Therefore, at the initial stage of the diet, weight loss starts from the inside – first the fat leaves the abdominal cavity, and only after it the external centimeters. Hence the calculation: with a decrease in total body weight within 5-10%, the fat content in the abdominal cavity is reduced by 10-30%.

For women, the normal percentage of lipids on 5-8 points is higher than that of men, and ranges in the 20-25% range. But these are only average indicators that differ for different age categories.

If for male bodybuilders, reducing the “fat” percentage to a minimum poses almost no danger to health, then the female body can react quite sharply to “drying” – even serious hormonal disorders.

The optimal percentage of fat for women

AgeFine(%)Average(%)Above the norm (%)
18-25 years22-2525-29,529,6
25-30 years22-25,525,5-29,729,8
30-35 years22,5-26,326,4-30,530,6
35-40 years24-27,527,6-30,530,6
40-45 years25,5-29,229,3-32,632,7
45-50 years27,5-30,830,9-3434,
50-60 years29,7-32,933-36,136,2
Older than 60 years30,7-3434-37,337,4

The optimal percentage of fat for men

AgeNormal(%)Average(%)Above the norm (%)
18-25 years15-18,9%19-23,323,4
25-30 years16,5-20,120,2-24,224,3
30-35 years18-21,521,5-25,225,3
35-40 years19,2-22,522,6-25,926
40-45 years20,5-23,423,5-26,927
45-50 years21,5-24,524,6-27,527,6
50-60 years22,7-2626,1-29,129,2
60 years and older23,2-26,226,3-29,129,2

As for men, the presence of 15-20% body fat in the body allows them to look fit. The six “cubes” of the press are visible when the indicator is in 10-12v percent, and 7% and less – this is the appearance of bodybuilders during competitions.

Calculate the percentage of body fat by using a special device by measuring the thickness of the folds on the body. This method is actively used by people professionally involved in bodybuilding. A simpler method is conventional electronic scales. Most models provide an opportunity to calculate the content of fat mass in the body.

Products, terrible for fat

So, by simple measurements, it became clear: there is a little more body fat than necessary. You can get rid of excess if you adjust your diet and physical activity. But, in addition, there are many products from which the greasy layer melts even faster. Nutritionists call them fat burners and are divided into two groups: liquids and solid foods.

Liquid Fat Burners

  1. Water.
    Effectively speeds up metabolism if you drink a glass of water 20 minutes before breakfast. Throughout the day, it is important to consume from one and a half to 2 liters of pure still water.
  2. Green tea.
    Natural fat burner that speeds up metabolism.
  3. Coffee.
    A cup of this drink, drunk before a sports training, will increase body temperature and accelerate the burning of fat cells. But this fat burner for obvious reasons is not suitable for hypertensive patients.
  4. Barley water.
    It destroys cells of subcutaneous fat, removes toxins from the body.
  5. Lemon water.
    Helps the body get rid of excess fat, boosts immunity, and reduces appetite.
  6. Freshes.
    Freshly squeezed juices contain many vitamins. And they play an important role in the process of healing and cleansing the body of all that is superfluous.
  7. Red wine.
    Not everyone accepts such an effective fat burner, but some nutritionists claim that a glass of wine before dinner significantly reduces appetite. The main thing is that the adoption of alcohol does not become a bad habit.

Solid Fat Burners

  1. Porridge.
    They cleanse the body of toxins. The most effective in the fight against body fat are oatmeal and buckwheat.
  2. Vegetables.
    Asparagus and cabbage remove excess fluid from the body, prevent fat deposition and the formation of edema, and regulate metabolism. Ginger has an amazing effect on the breakdown of fat.
  3. Protein products.
    Natural fat burners among protein foods are egg whites, fish, lean meat. They also contribute to faster muscle building instead of body fat.
  4. Fruits, berries.
    Rich in vitamins, grapefruits (like other citrus fruits) are one of the best fat burners. Kiwi and apples are good for weight loss – they normalize the intestines. Pineapple contains the substance Bromlein, which dissolves fats. There is an enzyme that breaks down fat molecules in raspberries and raisins.
  5. Dairy.
    Kefir, natural yogurt and cottage cheese destroy fatty tissues.
  6. Spice.
    Spicy seasonings stimulate an increase in body temperature and perspiration, which leads to the breakdown of subcutaneous fat.

Of the products listed, it is easy to create a fat burning diet menu. The most popular dishes of food programs aimed at burning fat – drink Sassi, the so-called Bonn soup and fruit and spicy cocktails. All these dishes are easy to prepare yourself at home.

Drink Sassi frees the body from excess fluid and speeds up metabolism. It consists of 2 liters of water, a teaspoon of crushed ginger, 1 sliced ​​cucumber, slices of one lemon and a few mint leaves.

For the Bonn soup you need 1 cabbage, 2 of sweet peppers, celery root and stalks, a few tomatoes. If desired, the soup can be supplemented with other ingredients that can break down fatty molecules.

For cocktails against excess fat, it is better to choose a combination of lemon and mint, grapefruit and pineapple, celery and apples, ginger and spicy spices.

However, the list of products is quite extensive, so there is something to experiment with.

Burn excess fats will help … fats

Of course, this doesn’t sound very logical, but some scientists say this. In their opinion, it is enough to reduce the share of carbohydrate intake and slightly increase the daily portion of fat (of course, trans fats are not included in this category), as the process of weight loss begins, and the level of “good” cholesterol goes up. At the same time, scientists insist: the amount of fat consumed should be increased due to red meat, sea fish, olive oil and nuts. Chicken dishes, some pork, avocado, tofu, canola oil are also welcome.

When engaging in the fight against excess fat, the ratio of consumed and burned calories is primarily important. “Useful” fats – this, of course, is good, but charging has also not been canceled.

Perhaps such a program for burning subcutaneous fat has the right to exist, and it is possible that it really helps many. Whatever it was, for anyone have to give up sweets, cakes and buns, and the products allowed by the diet, though included in the list of fat-rich, but very useful. And in small portions and they become dietary. After all, for losing weight, it is important not to abandon all fat, but to change the approach to nutrition.

Healthy fats for weight loss should be found in such products:

  • meat;
  • nuts;
  • olive oil;
  • cheese;
  • avocado;
  • bitter chocolate;
  • fat.

Regarding the last product, we note: despite the fact that it is a champion in fat content, fat still contributes to weight loss. It consists of unsaturated lipids, and those entering the body destroy the saturated fats that already exist in the body. In addition, according to some sources, fat strengthens the immune system, serves as a prevention of oncology, heart disease and blood vessels.

Amazing facts

The fact that fats are extremely necessary for the body to complete work and normal well-being is already clear. But the lipids in the human body are allotted some more interesting functions, which many did not even guess.

  1. For the brain.
    Brain tissue, biologists say, is almost 60 percent fat. Fat “casing” envelops each fiber of the nervous tissue, which contributes to a faster transmission of impulses. A low-fat diet actually robs the brain of the “building material” necessary for the functioning of the organ. For normal functioning, the brain needs Omega-3 acid, fat-soluble vitamins.
  2. For the lungs.
    The lungs, or rather their outer shell, also almost entirely consist of fats. In premature babies, the lungs are deprived of a protective oily layer, so such babies need outside help. An insufficient amount of fat in the body leads to disruption of the lungs. Some scientists track the relationship between inadequate fat intake and the development of asthma, which occurs as a result of the destruction of the fatty layer of the lungs.
  3. For immunity.
    Deficiency of lipids in butter and coconut oil, according to some scientists, leads to the fact that white blood cells (white blood cells) lose their ability to recognize and destroy viruses, fungi and bacteria.
  4. For the skin.
    Phospholipids are the main component of the cell membrane. Without the necessary amount of fat, cells are destroyed, which means that the structure of tissues and organs is violated. This also applies to the skin – the largest organ in the human body. Dry and chapped skin is an open gate for infections.
  5. For heart.
    Saturated fats in adequate amounts are also beneficial. At least this is what the scientists who examined the inhabitants of the Pacific islands say. In tribes, whose diet includes coconut oil, they practically do not suffer from cardiovascular problems.
  6. For hormones.
    Fats are structural components of hormones that regulate many body functions, including reproductive. Therefore, it is so important to prevent low-calorie diets in the diet of adolescent girls during the ripening period, since fat deficiency can adversely affect the development of the genitals.

Many people undeservedly classify lipids as “bad” foods and flatly refuse to eat fatty foods. And they do not even know what harm they are doing to their body. But you should take a closer look at these substances in order to understand: they are our everything, and the reason for the excess weight lies not in the oils and sea fish, but in the wrong view of the principles of nutrition.

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