Fructose is a monosaccharide that is present in its free form in sweet fruits, vegetables, and honey.
The compound was first synthesized in 1861 by the Russian chemist A.M. Butler by condensation of formic acid under the action of catalysts: barium hydroxide and calcium.
What is fructose?
It is a white crystalline powder, highly soluble in water, which is two times sweeter than glucose and five times lactose.
The chemical formula of the compound is C6H12O6.
Monosaccharide strengthens the immune system, relieves fatigue, stabilizes blood sugar, prevents the occurrence of caries and diathesis, gives strength and energy to the body.
Fructose is believed to be less high in calories than other carbohydrates. In 100 grams of monosaccharide, 390 calories are concentrated.
The recommended daily intake of fructose is 40 grams.
Signs of a deficiency in the body:
- nervous exhaustion.
Symptoms of surplus:
- increased appetite;
- excess weight.
Remember, if in the human body fructose becomes too much, it is processed into fat and enters the bloodstream in the form of triglycerides. As a result, the risk of developing heart disease increases.
The need for fructose increases with active mental, physical activity associated with significant energy consumption, and decreases in the evening / night, during rest, with excess body weight. The ratio of B: W: Y in the monosaccharide is 0%: 0%: 100%.
However, do not rush to rank the substance as a safe product, since there is a hereditary genetic disease – fructosemia. It testifies to the defects of enzymes (fructose – 1 – phosphataldolase, fructokinase) in the human body, which cleave the compound. As a result, fructose intolerance develops.
Fructosemia is detected in childhood, from the moment fruit and vegetable juices and mashed potatoes are introduced into the child’s diet.
Symptoms of the disease:
- pallor of the skin;
- disgust from sweet food;
- increased sweating;
- enlarged liver in size;
- stomach ache;
- signs of gout;
The form of fructosemia depends on the degree of lack of enzymes (enzymes) in the body. Distinguish between light and heavy, in the first case, a person can use a monosaccharide in limited quantities, in the second – no, because if it enters the body it causes acute hypoglycemia and presents a danger to life.
Benefit and harm
In its natural form, in the composition of fruits, vegetables and berries, fructose has a beneficial effect on the body: it reduces the inflammatory processes in the oral cavity and the likelihood of caries development by 35%. In addition, the monosaccharide acts as a natural antioxidant, prolongs the shelf life of products, keeping them in a fresh state.
Fructose does not cause allergies, is well absorbed by the body, prevents the accumulation of excess carbohydrates in tissues, reduces the calorie content of food and speeds up recovery after mental, physical stress. The compound shows tonic properties, so it is recommended to use it for people with an active lifestyle, athletes.
Fructose is used in cooking as a sugar substitute, preservative and berry flavor enhancer in the manufacture of the following products:
- dairy products;
- sweet drinks;
- low-calorie desserts;
- berry salads;
- ice cream;
- canned vegetables, fruits;
- sweets for diabetics (chocolate, biscuits, sweets).
Who should stop taking fructose?
First of all, to exclude monosaccharide from the menu should be people suffering from obesity. Fruit sugar suppresses the production of the hormone “full” – peptin, as a result, the brain does not receive a signal of saturation, a person begins to overeat, gaining extra kilograms.
In addition, the connection is recommended to use with caution wishing to lose weight, patients with fructosemia, diabetes. Despite the low glycemic index of fructose (20 GI), 25% of it is nevertheless transformed into glucose (100 GI), which requires rapid insulin release. The rest is absorbed by diffusion through the intestinal wall. Fructose metabolism ends in the liver, where it turns into fat and splits itself to participate in gluconeogenesis and glycolysis.
Thus, the harm and benefits of the monosaccharide are obvious. The main condition – to observe moderation in use.
Natural sources of fructose
To avoid oversaturation of the body with a sweet monosaccharide, consider which products contain it in the maximum amount.
Table No. 1 “Fructose Sources”
|Name||The amount of monosaccharide in 100 grams of product, grams|
|Currant red and white||3,53|
|Plum (cherry plum)||3,07|
|Sweet pepper (Bulgarian)||1,12|
“Harmful” sources of fructose are simple carbohydrates: gingerbread, jelly, candy, muffins, jam, sesame halvah, waffles. As a rule, manufacturers use monosaccharide for the manufacture of sweet products for diabetics, but it can be consumed in moderate amounts to healthy people instead of sugar.
Who is who: glucose or fructose?
Glucose is a monosaccharide synthesized by the human body from fats, proteins, carbohydrates to maintain cell activity. This is a universal source of energy for all internal organs and systems.
Fructose is a natural sugar present in fruits and vegetables.
After entering the body, dietary carbohydrates under the influence of amylases of the pancreas and salivary glands are broken down to glucose and adsorbed in the intestine as monosaccharides. Then the sugars are converted into energy, and their residues are deposited “in reserve” in the form of glycogen in the muscle tissue and liver for daily use.
Galactose, glucose, fructose – hexose. They have the same molecular formula and differ only in the ratio of the bond with the oxygen atom. Glucose – belongs to the category of aldose or reducing sugars, and fructose – ketosis. In the interaction of carbohydrates form a disaccharide sucrose.
The main difference between fructose and glucose is the way they are digested. For the absorption of the first monosaccharide, an enzyme called fructokinase is required; for the second, glucokinase or hexokinase is required.
Fructose metabolism occurs in the liver; no other cells can use it. The monosaccharide transforms the compound into fatty acids, while not producing leptin production and insulin secretion.
Interestingly, fructose releases energy more slowly than glucose, which is rapidly absorbed into the blood when it enters the body. The concentration of simple carbohydrate is regulated by adrenaline, glucagon, insulin. In addition, polysaccharides entering the human body with food, medications in the digestive process are converted in the small intestine into glucose.
What is better fructose or sugar?
There is no unequivocal answer to this question. In excessive concentrations, both carbohydrates adversely affect the human body. At the same time, nutritionists agree: to preserve health, it is better to give preference to fresh fruits and berries than to synthesized sweeteners and store juices.
Frequently asked Questions
Is it possible to give crystalline fructose to children under one year old?
No, because a monosaccharide can cause atopic dermatitis in infants. Therefore, it is more than unwise to give any synthetic sugar (fructose, glucose) to kids. Replace bread, candy, cookies, natural fruit, dried fruit.
Is it possible to eat fructose pregnant and lactating women?
In the period of childbearing, the expectant mother enters the risk zone for disturbed carbohydrate metabolism. This question is acute, if a woman had excess weight before pregnancy. As a result, fructose will contribute to further weight gain, and therefore create problems with childbirth, childbirth and increase the risk of developing gestational diabetes. Due to obesity, the fetus can be large, which will complicate the baby’s passage through the birth canal.
In addition, there is a perception that if a woman consumes a lot of fast carbohydrates during pregnancy, this leads to laying more fat cells in the baby than usual, which in adulthood causes a tendency to obesity.
During breastfeeding, it is also better to refrain from taking crystalline fructose, since part of it is all the same transformed into glucose, which undermines mom’s health.
What does sugar consist of?
It is a disaccharide derived from A – glucose and B – fructose, which are linked. To assimilate sugar, the human body spends calcium, which leads to leaching of the building element from bone tissue. In addition, expert reviews indicate that the disaccharide damages tooth enamel, causes fat deposition and accelerates aging. It forms a false sense of hunger, depletes energy reserves, “captures” and removes the B vitamins. Therefore, sugar, by right, is considered a “sweet poison” that slowly kills the body.
Is it possible to eat fructose in diabetes?
In moderation. Twelve grams of a monosaccharide contains one bread unit.
Fructose is a carbohydrate with a low glycemic index (20) and a glycotic load of 6,6 grams, when it enters the body does not provoke fluctuations in blood sugar and sudden insulin emissions like sugar. Due to this property, monosaccharide is of particular value for insulin-dependent people.
For children with a diagnosis of diabetes, the allowable daily intake of carbohydrate is calculated on the basis of the ratio 0,5 gram of compound per kilogram of body weight; for adults, this figure increases to 0,75.
What are the benefits and disadvantages of fructose for diabetics?
After ingestion, the monosaccharide, without the intervention of insulin, reaches intracellular metabolism and is rapidly removed from the blood. Unlike glucose, fructose does not release intestinal hormones that stimulate insulin secretion. Despite this, some of the compound still turns into sugar. As a result, the blood glucose level rises smoothly.
The rate of rising sugar is affected by the amount of taken fructose: the more you eat, the faster and higher it will reach a critical point.
Fructose is a monosaccharide that supplies a person with energy.
In moderate amounts, the substance is a good substitute for refined sugar, because it has a low glycemic index and increases the level of glucose in the blood gradually. It has a tonic effect, contributes to the rapid restoration of the body after intensive training, does not cause tooth decay. In addition, fructose accelerates the breakdown of alcohol in the blood, which contributes to its rapid elimination. As a result, the effect of intoxication on the body is reduced. In cooking, the monosaccharide is used in baking bakery products, the production of jam, jam.
Remember, excessive consumption of crystalline fructose, more than 40 grams per day, can be harmful to health and lead to weight gain, the development of heart disease, allergies, premature aging. Therefore, it is recommended to limit the consumption of artificial monosaccharide, and increase it naturally, in the form of fruits, vegetables, dried fruits, and berries.