Histidine is an amino acid derived from proteins by hydrolysis. The highest concentration (almost 8,5 percent of the total) is contained in hemoglobin. It was first isolated from proteins in the 1896 year.
What is histidine
It is well known that when we eat meat, we consume protein, and amino acids are part of proteins. Histidine is one of the most important amino acids for maintaining life on Earth. This proteinogenic substance is involved in the formation of proteins and affects a number of metabolic reactions in the body.
All amino acids are the building blocks for proteins. After digesting the protein, the body receives individual amino acids. Some of them are interchangeable (the body is capable of producing them) and irreplaceable (can only be obtained through diet). Histidine in this regard is a unique substance – an amino acid interchangeable and irreplaceable at the same time. Or as it is customary to call it – half-replaceable.
Babies feel the greatest need for this amino acid, since they require histidine as a growth agent. Babies get it through breast milk or from baby food. Also, this substance is indispensable for adolescents and people after serious illnesses. Unbalanced nutrition and frequent stresses lead to an amino acid deficiency, which can manifest as a slowdown or complete arrest of growth in children and rheumatoid arthritis in adults.
One of the most striking characteristics of histidine is the ability to transform into other substances, including histamine and hemoglobin. It also participates in a number of metabolic reactions, contributes to the supply of organs and tissues with oxygen. In addition, it helps to remove heavy metals from the body, restore tissue and strengthen the immune system.
Other functions of histidine:
- regulation of blood acidity;
- accelerating wound healing;
- coordinating growth mechanisms;
- natural recovery of the body.
Without histidine, all growth-related processes will stop, and regeneration of damaged tissue will become impossible. Also, the lack of histidine in the body results in inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes of the body, and recovery from surgical operations will be delayed for a longer time. In addition, histidine has a therapeutic effect on inflammation, and therefore is an effective remedy for arthritis.
In addition to the already mentioned beneficial properties, this amino acid has another no less significant ability – it helps to form myelin sheaths of nerve cells (their damage causes Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, as well as other degenerative diseases). Also, this semi-essential amino acid is involved in the synthesis of red and white blood cells (red blood cells and white blood cells), which again helps to strengthen the immune system. And finally, it is important to say that histidine protects the body from radiation.
Histidine in medicine
Although the preventive and therapeutic potential of histidine has not yet been fully studied, a number of studies have already proven the effectiveness of an amino acid. In particular, it is known that this beneficial substance helps to lower blood pressure. Relaxing blood vessels, prevents hypertension, atherosclerosis, heart attack and other cardiac diseases. It has already been proven that daily consumption of this substance reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases by almost 61 percent.
Another area of histidine use is nephrology. Amino acid has a positive effect on the condition of persons with chronic renal failure (especially in old age).
In addition, this substance has been shown to be effective in the treatment of hepatitis, stomach ulcers, urticaria, arthritis and AIDS.
Therapeutic doses of histidine range from 0,5 to 20 g per day.
But even consuming 30 g of amino acid per day does not cause side effects. So, in any case, the researchers convince. But they immediately specify: provided that the drug is not taken for a long time. But still, the most appropriate is called the dosage in 1-8 g per day. More precisely, the individual minimum amino acid requirement can be outstripped by the formula: 10-12 mg of substance – per 1 kg of body weight. Histidine as a dietary supplement is best taken on an empty stomach. So its action is more effective.
Combination with other substances
Recent studies have shown that the combination of histidine and zinc is an effective remedy for colds. In addition, zinc promotes easier absorption of amino acids. In addition, an experiment with the participation of 40 people showed that a “cocktail” of zinc and histidine minimizes the duration of diseases caused by viruses or bacteria. A cold against an amino acid lasts an average of 3-4 less days.
Histidine in the form of supplements is useful for people with arthritis, anemia, or after surgery.
People with bipolar disorders, allergies, asthma and various inflammations should avoid this drug. Also with caution to supplements containing the amino acid, it is necessary to treat women during pregnancy and lactation, as well as people with a deficiency of folic acid.
Chronic diseases, injuries and stresses increase the need for histidine. In this case, to meet the needs of the body exclusively through products is quite difficult. But problems are solved with the help of bioactive additives. Digestive disorders and low acidity are also the cause of more intensive intake of the substance.
Disruption of histidine metabolism is manifested as a rare genetic disease of histidinemia. In these patients there is no enzyme that breaks down the amino acid. As a result, the level of amino acids in the urine and blood rises sharply.
Danger of scarcity
Studies show that people with rheumatoid arthritis usually have low levels of histidine. Amino acid deficiency in infants often causes eczema. In addition, inadequate intake of substances leads to cataracts, and also provokes diseases of the stomach and duodenum. It is known that histidine affects the immune system, for this reason, an amino acid deficiency increases allergies, makes the body more prone to infections and inflammatory processes. Inadequate intake of substances is extremely negative for the health of children and adolescents during intensive growth and formation of the body.
An amino acid deficiency can also “remind” itself of developmental delays, decreased libido, impairment of hearing, and fibromyalgia.
Is excess hazardous?
There is no information about the possible toxicity of histidine. But still the consumption of amino acids in especially high doses can cause allergic or asthmatic reactions, provoke a deficiency of copper and zinc, and the concentration of cholesterol in the blood, on the contrary, increase. In men, an excess of histidine causes premature ejaculation.
Histidine in food
To meet the daily need for amino acids will help properly selected products. For example, only 100 g of beans provides more than 1-gram portion of histidine (1097 mg), the same amount of chicken fillet will enrich the body with additional 791 mg of substance, and a similar portion of beef will give approximately 680 mg of histidine. As for fish products, approximately 550 mg of amino acid is contained in an 100-gram slice of salmon. And among plant foods, wheat germ is the most nutritious. In 100 g product – within 640 mg of amino acid.
However, it is important to note that the above figures are approximate, since the saturation of food with useful substances depends on many factors. And importantly, the storage conditions of the product. When it comes to histidine, to preserve its maximum amount in peas, walnuts or corn, products must be kept in hermetic conditions, away from direct sunlight and oxygen. Otherwise, histidine is rapidly destroyed.
To maintain the balance of amino acids in the adult body is usually enough of the substance that is synthesized in the liver from other amino acids. But for children in the period of intensive growth, and for some other groups of people, it is important to supplement the amino reserves of properly selected food.
Protein products contain, if not all, then at least most of the amino acids a person needs. Products of animal origin contain the so-called full-fledged proteins, therefore, they are more useful in terms of the supply of amine substances. Plant foods contain only some of the essentials. Although it is not difficult to replenish histidine stocks, especially since the body is able to produce it, but there are still cases of substance deficiency. Avoid reducing the concentration will help the use of products from different groups.
High concentration of histidine is in meat, fish, dairy products, some cereals (rice, rye, wheat). Other sources of amino acids: seafood, beans, eggs, buckwheat, cauliflower, potatoes, mushrooms, bananas, citrus fruits, melons.
Provide a daily rate of amino acids from dishes made from beef, pork, lamb and poultry, different types of hard cheese, soy products, as well as fish (tuna, salmon, trout, mackerel, halibut, sea bass). From the group of seeds and nuts, it is important to consume almonds, sesame, peanuts, sunflower seeds, pistachios. And from dairy products – natural yogurt, milk and sour cream. In the category of cereals, a lot of histidine is found in wild rice, millet, and buckwheat.
Histidine is an important amino acid for health. It is necessary for the growth and repair of tissues, the production of blood cells and the neurotransmitter histamine. This substance is able to reliably protect tissues from damage by radiation or heavy metals. Therefore, it is important to monitor your diet in order to provide the body with a sufficient amount of amino acids. Foods that are rich in matter are needed by children and adolescents, as well as by individuals after injuries or surgeries. This semi-replaceable amino acid has already proven its effectiveness in maintaining human health. And how to provide yourself with this useful substance, you already know.