Glucose

Glucose (dextrose) is a monosaccharide, which is a universal source of energy for humans. This is the end product of the hydrolysis of di – and polysaccharides. The connection was opened by the English doctor William Praut in 1802.

Glucose or grape sugar is the most important nutrient for the central nervous system of a person. It ensures the normal functioning of the body with a strong physical, emotional, intellectual loads and a quick response of the brain to force majeure situations. In other words, glucose is a jet fuel supporting all vital processes at the cellular level.

The compound structure formula is C6H12O6.

Glucose is a crystalline substance of a sweet taste, odorless, readily soluble in water, concentrated solutions of sulfuric acid, zinc chloride, Schweizer’s reagent. It is formed in nature as a result of photosynthesis of plants, in industry – by hydrolysis of cellulose, starch.

The molar mass of the compound is 180,16 grams per mole.

The sweetness of glucose is twice lower than sucrose.

Monosaccharide is used in cooking, the medical industry. Drugs based on it are used to relieve intoxication and determine the presence, such as diabetes.

Consider hyperglycemia / hypoglycemia – what it is, the benefits and harms of glucose, where it is contained, use in medicine.

Daily rate

To power the brain cells, red blood cells, striated muscles and provide the body with energy, a person needs to eat “his” individual rate. To calculate it, multiply the actual body weight by the 2,6 coefficient. The resulting value is the daily need of your body in the monosaccharide.

At the same time, knowledge workers (office workers) performing computing and planning operations, athletes and people experiencing heavy physical activity should increase their daily rate. Since these operations require more energy expended.

The need for glucose decreases with a sedentary lifestyle, a tendency to diabetes, overweight. In this case, the body will use not easily digestible saccharide for storage of energy, but fat reserves.

Remember, moderate-dose glucose is a medicine and “fuel” for internal organs and systems. At the same time, excessive consumption of sweetness turns it into poison, wrapping its beneficial properties to harm.

Hyperglycemia and Hypoglycemia

In a healthy person, the level of fasting blood glucose is 3,3 – 5,5 mmol per liter, after eating it rises to the level of 7,8.

If this indicator is below normal, hypoglycemia develops, hyperglycemia is higher. Any deviations from the permissible value cause disturbances in the body, often irreversible disorders.

Elevated blood glucose increases insulin production, which leads to intensive wear of the pancreas. As a result, the body begins to deplete, there is a risk of developing diabetes, immunity suffers. When reaching the concentration of glucose in the blood to 10 millimoles per liter, the liver ceases to cope with its functions, the circulatory system is impaired. Excess sugar is converted to triglycerides (fat cells), which provoke ischemic disease, atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart attack, and cerebral hemorrhage.

The main reason for the development of hyperglycemia is a malfunction of the pancreas.

Products that reduce blood sugar:

  • oatmeal;
  • lobsters, lobster, crabs;
  • blueberry juice;
  • tomatoes, Jerusalem artichokes, black currants;
  • soy cheese;
  • lettuce leaves, pumpkin;
  • green tea;
  • avocado;
  • meat, fish, chicken;
  • lemon, grapefruit;
  • almonds, cashews, peanuts;
  • beans;
  • watermelon;
  • garlic and onions.

A drop in blood glucose leads to inadequate nutrition of the brain, weakening of the body, which sooner or later leads to fainting. A person loses strength, there is muscle weakness, apathy, physical exertion is difficult, coordination worsens, a feeling of anxiety, confusion. Cells are in a state of starvation, their division and regeneration is slowed down, the risk of tissue death increases.

Causes of hypoglycemia: alcohol poisoning, the lack of sweet foods in the diet, cancer, thyroid dysfunction.

To maintain blood glucose in the normal range, pay attention to the work of the insular apparatus, enrich the daily menu with useful natural sweets containing monosaccharides. Remember, a low level of insulin prevents the complete absorption of the compound, as a result hypoglycemia develops. At the same time, adrenaline, on the contrary, will help to increase it.

Benefit and harm

The main functions of glucose – nutritional and energy. Thanks to them, it supports the heartbeat, breathing, muscle contraction, the brain, nervous system and regulates body temperature.

The value of glucose in humans:

  1. Participates in metabolic processes, acts as the most digestible energy resource.
  2. Supports the performance of the body.
  3. It nourishes brain cells, improves memory, learning.
  4. Stimulates the work of the heart.
  5. Quickly quenches hunger.
  6. Relieves stress, corrects mental state.
  7. Accelerates the recovery of muscle tissue.
  8. Helps the liver in neutralizing toxic substances.

How many years glucose is used for intoxication of the body, with hypoglycemia. Monosaccharide is part of blood substitutes, antishock drugs used to treat diseases of the liver and central nervous system.

In addition to the positive effect, glucose can harm the body of people in old age, patients with impaired metabolism and lead to the following consequences:

  • obesity;
  • thrombophlebitis development;
  • pancreas overload;
  • the occurrence of allergic reactions;
  • increasing cholesterol;
  • the appearance of inflammatory, heart disease, coronary circulation disorder;
  • arterial hypertension;
  • retinal damage;
  • endothelial dysfunction.

Remember, the delivery of monosaccharide into the body must be fully compensated by the consumption of calories for energy needs.

Sources of

Monosaccharide is found in animal muscle glycogen, starch, berries, and fruits. 50% of the energy required for the body, a person receives due to glycogen (deposited in the liver, muscle tissue) and the use of glucose-containing products.

The main natural source of the compound is honey (80%), it also contains another useful carbohydrate – fructose.

Nutritionists recommend stimulating the body to extract sugars from food, avoiding the intake of refined sugar.

Table number 1 “What is the glucose?”

product NameThe content of monosaccharide in 100 grams, grams
Rafinated sugar99,7
Bee Honey80,1
Marmalade79,2
Gingerbread77,6
Pasta70,5
Sweet straw69,1
dates69,0
Pearl barley66,8
Dried66,1
Raisins65,6
Apple jam65,0
Chocolate63,2
rice62,2
Oatmeal61,7
Corn61,3
Buckwheat60,3
Bread white52,8
Rye bread44,2
Ice cream21,2
Potatoes8,0
Apples7,8
Grapes7,7
Beetroot6,6
Carrots5,6
Cherry5,4
Cherry5,4
Milk4,4
gooseberries4,3
Pumpkin4,1
pulse4,1
Cabbage4,0
Raspberry3,8
Tomatoes3,3
Curd3,2
Cream3,0
plums3,0
Liver2,7
Strawberries2,6
Cranberries2,4
Watermelon2,3
oranges2,3
Apricots2,1
Tangerines2,0
Cheese2,0
peaches2,0
Pear1,7
Black currant1,4
cucumbers1,2
Oil0,4
Eggs0,3

Glucose in medicine: release form

Glucose preparations are referred to as detoxification and metabolic agents. Their spectrum of action is aimed at improving metabolic and redox processes in the body. The active substance of these drugs is dextrose monohydrate (sublimated glucose in combination with excipients).

Forms of release and pharmacological properties of nosaccharide:

  1. Tablets containing 0,5 grams of dry dextrose. When taken orally, glucose has a vasodilator and sedative effect (moderately pronounced). In addition, the drug replenishes energy reserves, increasing intellectual and physical productivity.
  2. Solution for infusion. In a liter of 5% glucose, there are 50 grams of anhydrous dextrose, in 10% composition – 100 grams of substance, in 20% mixture – 200 grams of carbohydrate, in 40% concentrate – 400 grams of saccharide. Given that the 5% saccharide solution is isotonic with respect to blood plasma, the introduction of the drug into the bloodstream helps to normalize the acid-base and water-electrolyte balance in the body.
  3. Solution for intravenous injection. A milliliter of 5% concentrate contains 50 milligrams of dried dextrose, 10% contains 100 milligrams, 25% contains 250 milligrams, and 40% contains 400 milligrams. When administered intravenously, glucose increases osmotic blood pressure, dilates blood vessels, increases urination, increases fluid outflow from tissues, activates metabolic processes in the liver, and normalizes the contractile function of the myocardium.

In addition, the saccharide is used for artificial therapeutic nutrition, including enteral and parenteral.

When and in what dosage is prescribed “medical” glucose?

Indications for use:

  • hypoglycemia (low blood sugar concentration);
  • lack of carbohydrate food (with mental and physical overload);
  • rehabilitation period after protracted diseases, including infectious (as an additional food);
  • cardiac decompensation, intestinal infectious pathologies, liver diseases, hemorrhagic diathesis (in combination therapy);
  • collapse (sudden drop in blood pressure);
  • shock;
  • dehydration caused by vomiting, diarrhea, or surgery;
  • intoxication or poisoning (including drugs, arsenic, acids, carbon monoxide, phosgene);
  • to increase the size of the fetus during pregnancy (in case of suspicion of low weight).

In addition, “liquid” glucose is used for dilution of drugs administered parenterally.

Isotonic glucose solution (5%) is administered in the following ways:

  • subcutaneous (single dose – 300 – 500 milliliters);
  • intravenous drip (maximum injection rate – 400 milliliters per hour, daily allowance for adults – 500 – 3000 milliliters, daily dose for children – 100 – 170 milliliters of solution per kilogram of baby weight, for newborns this figure drops to 60);
  • in the form of enemas (a single portion of the substance varies from 300 to 2000 milliliters, depending on the age and condition of the patient).

Hypertensive glucose concentrates (10%, 25% and 40%) are used only for intravenous injection. Moreover, in one step, no more than 20 – 50 ml of solution is administered. However, for high blood loss, hypoglycemia, hypertonic fluid is used for infusion infusions (100 – 300 milliliters per day).

Remember, the pharmacological properties of glucose are enhanced by ascorbic acid (1%), insulin, methylene blue (1%).

Glucose tablets are taken orally by 1 – 2 units per day (if necessary, increase the daily portion to 10 pills).

Contraindications to taking glucose:

  • diabetes;
  • pathology, accompanied by an increase in the concentration of sugar in the blood;
  • glucose intolerance.

Side effects:

  • hyperhydration (due to the introduction of bulk portions of an isotonic solution);
  • decreased appetite;
  • necrosis of the subcutaneous tissue (if a hypertonic solution gets under the skin);
  • acute heart failure;
  • inflammation of veins, thrombosis (due to the rapid introduction of the solution);
  • dysfunction of the insular apparatus.

Remember, too fast administration of glucose is fraught with hyperglycemia, osmotic diuresis, hypervolemia, hyperglucosuria.

Conclusion

Glucose is an important nutrient for the human body.

Consumption of monosaccharide should be reasonable. Excessive or insufficient intake undermines the immune system, disrupts the metabolism, causes health problems (leads to imbalance in the cardiac, endocrine, nervous systems, reduces brain activity).

To keep the body at a high level of efficiency and receive enough energy, avoid exhausting physical exertion, stress, monitor the work of the liver, pancreas, eat healthy carbohydrates (cereals, fruits, vegetables, dried fruits, honey). At the same time, refuse to accept “empty” calories, represented by cakes, cakes, sweets, cookies, waffles.

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