Hydroxyproline is an interchangeable proteinogenic amino acid, a proline precursor, which in turn is necessary for collagen production. And since proline is formed from glutamate, both of these amino acids belong to the glutamate amino acid family.
Hydroxyproline was first isolated in 1902 from gelatin. This amino acid is necessary to create the main protein in the human body – collagen (a protein found in bone and connective tissue). Hydrospirolin is excreted in the urine. It is formed by hydroxylation of proline with the participation of ascorbic acid. This process occurs under the influence of the enzyme polylhydroxylase contained in the skin, liver, heart, lungs, skeletal muscles.
In the human body, high concentrations are found in structural proteins, including connective tissues. This substance was also found in the plant cell membranes, in algae, mushroom-like.
Today it is known about 2 forms of amino acids:
There is an opinion that dietary supplements containing an amino acid have a positive effect on the well-being of people with osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, skin ulcers. It is also believed that hydroxyproline serves as a prophylactic against early wrinkles, helps faster recovery after sports injuries, promotes muscle growth and loss of excess weight. Meanwhile, scientific evidence of this could not be found.
Hydroxyproline and collagen
In the bodies of mammals and humans, including, hydroxyproline is contained mainly in the composition of collagen. Two-thirds of the collagen consists of proline and hydroxyproline, the rest is glycine. As part of collagen, hydroxyproline is responsible for the stabilization of the triple helix. Meanwhile, it is interesting that hydroxyproline, obtained from food, as a result of metabolism does not turn into collagen. This is the sole prerogative of hydroxproline formed from proline (including food).
In order to better understand the significance of these amino acids for the body, it is worth saying that it is the collagen that determines the elasticity and integrity of the skin, as well as the strength of the ligaments. However, in order for proline to transform into hydroxyproline, the presence of ascorbic acid is necessary. Subsequently, hydroxyproline itself is included in the process of synthesizing antifungal substances and chiral ligands.
Eating an amino acid is beneficial for bone diseases, for improving growth, as well as for Marfan syndrome (a genetic disease affecting the connective tissue). It is on the concentration of hydroxyproline in the body that the health of bone tissue, tendons, cartilage and skin depends.
Meanwhile, collagen is not the only protein tissue containing hydroxyproline. This amino acid has been found in elastin. And while collagen is responsible for the proper structure of tissues, elastin betrays its elasticity.
Functions in the body:
- maintaining healthy skin, muscles;
- promotes bone tissue regeneration, wound healing;
- has a beneficial effect on metabolic processes;
- stimulates the pituitary gland, adrenal glands;
- It has analgesic properties (relieves headaches);
- facilitates PMS;
- important for rapid detoxification of the body;
- important for the formation of collagen and elastin;
- improves the motility of the digestive organs;
- involved in the synthesis of glycogen.
The need for a healthy body in this amino acid, as the researchers argue, is determined by 5 g per day.
Meanwhile, this is only the minimum required amount. In some circumstances, this figure increases. More than usual, it will be necessary for pregnant women, people with weakened immunity, during times of stress, with increased fatigue and great physical exertion. The presence of bruises and wounds can also serve as a signal to increase the daily intake of amino acids.
On the contrary, with caution to treat the substance is important for people with intolerance or allergies to hydroxyproline.
What is dangerous shortage
To determine the concentration of hydroxyproline, as well as other amino acids in the human body by laboratory tests of serum and urine.
Insufficient synthesis of collagen increases the risk of problems with the vessels, resulting in possible bruising and internal bleeding. In addition, deficiency of hydroxyproline, as a component of collagen, can cause the breakdown of connective tissue, damage to the integrity of the ligaments and tendons.
One of the causes of hydroxyproline deficiency is called vitamin C deficiency. This is because ascorbic acid is an essential component for the creation of an amino acid. As a result of this simultaneous double deficiency, the skin loses its elasticity and strength, becomes unprotected against injuries, the gums begin to bleed, symptoms of scurvy appear.
It was also found that people with Marfan syndrome are experiencing a critical shortage of substance.
Excess in the body
Studies have shown that the concentration of amino acids increases against the background of bone diseases (acromegaly, hyperaparathyroidism, hypertriosis, osteomyelitis, nodular polyarthritis, prostate cancer with bone metastases). Also, the accumulation of amino acids in the urine and blood increases in the presence of Paget’s disease (a disease accompanied by pathogenic changes in bone tissue), against the background of endocrine dysfunction.
The destruction of collagen fibers and bone resorption are usually accompanied by a high content of amino acids in the composition of urine. In children, during the period of intensive growth, the concentration of hydroxyproline is also increased.
The cause of the excess amino acid is hydroxyprolinemia. Under this complex name lies no less complex disease – a genetic metabolic disorder, as a result of which the level of the amino acid hydroxyproline increases. The disease is asymptomatic.
Since the body is able to independently produce hydroxyproline from proline, it is believed that there is no particular need to monitor the consumption of this amino acid in the form of food. There is also no evidence that consuming a large amount of this substance will bring specific benefits to the body. Meanwhile, it is worth noting that hydroxyproline is found in protein-rich foods, mainly of animal origin (pork, beef, venison, poultry). Among plant sources, hydroxyproline is rich in: wild rice, “oatmeal”, millet, flax, and wheat. It is also worth paying attention to seafood and snails – they are also rich in amino acid. In addition, hydroxyproline is also available in the form of bioactive additives (in the form of tablets, capsules and creams).
Amino acids in cosmetology
The beauty industry has never stopped in search of effective means for rejuvenation. The task of modern cosmetics is not just to protect the skin from damage, but also slow down the aging process, smooth wrinkles, restore the former freshness, elasticity and elasticity of the skin. And as it turned out, hydroxyproline copes with all these tasks. Being a component of cosmetics, it has a rejuvenating effect and begins to work even at the level of cells, maintains the required level of moisture in the epidermis.
Research results have proven the effectiveness of hydroxyproline, especially in combination with hyaluronic acid. Such a mix of useful substances rejuvenates the skin and improves its overall condition, not only due to its ability to retain moisture, but also by normalizing the functioning of epidermal cells. As well as any amino acid, it is a natural nutrient for hair and nails.
Hydroxyproline is a universal amino acid. She cares not only about health, but also about the appearance of a person. Proper nutrition and a healthy lifestyle will help the body produce adequate doses of amino acids, which, undoubtedly, will have a positive effect on overall health and well-being.