Omega-9 acids are a group of monounsaturated triglycerides that enter the structure of every cell in the human body. These fats are involved in the construction of myelin neurons, regulate the exchange of essential compounds, activate the synthesis of hormones, neurotransmitters and vitamin-like substances.
The main sources of monounsaturated fats are olive, almond and peanut oils, fish oil, nuts, seeds.
Let us consider in detail what omega-9 triglycerides are, where they are contained, their main functions.
In the human body, omega-9 lipids perform energetic, plastic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive and structural functions. These substances belong to the group of conditionally interchangeable compounds, since they are able to be synthesized from unsaturated fats.
The main representatives of omega-9:
- Oleic (cis-9-octadecenoic) acid. Its content is the closest to human reserve fat. Thanks to this, the body does not spend resources on the reconstruction of the fatty acid composition of the lipid from food. Oleic acid is involved in the construction of cell membranes. When replacing triglyceride with other monounsaturated compounds, there is a sharp deterioration in the permeability of biological membranes. In addition, cis-9-octadecene lipids slow down the peroxidation of deposited fats in human depots and serve as an energy source for the body.
Oleic acid is obtained from vegetable oils (olive, peanut, sunflower) and animal fats (beef, pork, cod). Unlike omega-3,6 acids, omega-9 is less oxidized, which serves as the basis for the use of lipid for filling canned food, frying foods.
- Erucic acid. The leaders in the content of the compound are rapeseed, colza, broccoli, mustard. Erucic acid is used primarily for industrial purposes, since the mammalian enzyme system is not suitable for its disposal. So, rapeseed oil is used in the leather, textile, soap, paint and varnish industries. For oral administration, oils that contain no more than 5% erucic acid of the total amount of fat per product are permissible.
Exceeding the safe daily norm can be harmful to health: slow down the onset of reproductive maturity, lead to skeletal muscle infiltration, disrupt the full functioning of the heart and liver.
- Gondoic acid (eicosenic) acid. Triglycerides are used in cosmetology to enhance the regeneration and protection of the dermis from ultraviolet rays, deeply moisturize the skin, strengthen hair follicles, and maintain cell membranes.
Natural sources – organic oils: jojoba, camelina, mustard, rapeseed.
- Acidic acid. These fats are the final metabolic products of the human body.
- Elaidic acid. The compound is a transisomer of oleic acid. Elaidin lipids are rare in the plant world. However, in small quantities they are found in cow and goat milk (0,1% of the total volume of triglycerides).
- Nervonic (selacholic) acid. It is part of the sphingolipids of the brain, participates in the synthesis of myelin sheaths of neurons, restores nerve fibers. The main representatives of nerve acid are chinook salmon (Pacific salmon), yellow mustard fruits, flaxseeds, sockeye salmon (radiant salmon), sesame seeds, macadamia nuts. The compounds are used in medicine to eliminate disorders associated with demyelination of neuron membranes (multiple sclerosis, adrenoleukodystrophy) and the treatment of post-stroke complications (numbness of the limbs, hemiplegia, glossolalia).
Among monounsaturated fats, oleic acid is the most beneficial for the human body.
Without omega-9 fats, the full functioning of the immune, cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous and digestive systems is impossible.
Why is it good to use them?
- Stabilize blood glucose, reducing the risk of diabetes.
- Stop the growth of cholesterol deposits in blood vessels, preventing the occurrence of thrombosis, atherosclerosis, heart attack, stroke.
- Increase the immune status of the body.
- Support the barrier function of the dermis.
- Slow down the division of malignant cells (together with omega-3).
- Regulate lipid, carbohydrate and protein metabolism.
- Activate the synthesis of vitamins, neurotransmitters and hormone-like compounds.
- They increase the permeability of cell membranes for the penetration of essential substances.
- Protect the mucous membranes of organs from destruction.
- They retain moisture in the epidermis.
- Participate in the construction of myelin sheaths of neurons.
- Reduce nervous irritability, prevent the development of depression.
- Increase the elasticity of blood vessels.
- Supply the body with energy (due to the breakdown of lipid structures).
- They maintain muscle tone, regulate the work of muscles.
Given the wide range of useful properties, omega-9 triglycerides are used to treat and prevent anorexia, diabetes, osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, constipation, eye pathologies, acne, alcoholism, eczema, arthritis, arthrosis, malignant neoplasms, depression, premenstrual syndrome, tuberculosis, strokes, heart attacks, obesity, ulcers of various etiologies.
The body’s need for omega-9 varies between 13 – 20% of the total calorie intake. However, depending on age, state of health and place of residence, this indicator may vary.
The daily norm of omega-9 is increased in the following cases:
- if there are inflammatory processes in the body (regardless of location);
- in the treatment of chronic diseases of blood vessels and heart (due to stopping the growth of cholesterol deposits);
- with physical overload (intense sports, hard work).
The need for omega-9 fats decreases with:
- the use of large portions of essential lipids omega-3 and omega-6 (since oleic acid can be synthesized from these substances);
- low blood pressure;
- pancreatic dysfunctions.
Deficiency and excess
Given that omega-9 is partially synthesized in the body, a deficiency of these compounds is a rare occurrence. The most common causes of fatty acid deficiency are prolonged fasting and adherence to “lipid-free” weight loss programs.
The consequences of the lack of omega-9:
- weakened immunity, and as a result, a predisposition to bacterial and viral infections;
- the occurrence of arthritis, arthrosis, articular pathologies;
- deterioration of the digestive tract (prolonged constipation, bloating, flatulence);
- reduced concentration;
- depressed mood, emotional instability;
- exacerbation of chronic diseases of the musculoskeletal system;
- weakness, fatigue;
- deterioration in the appearance of hair (intense loss, loss of shine, brittleness);
- increased blood pressure;
- excessive dryness of the skin and mucous membranes;
- constant thirst;
- the occurrence of cracks in the mucous membranes of organs;
- a change in the internal microflora of the vagina, and as a result, the development of reproductive dysfunctions.
If you do not stop the deficiency of monounsaturated fats in the body for a long time, a person begins to worry about heart attacks.
However, remember that an excess of oleic acid is also unsafe for health, as well as a disadvantage.
Signs of an overdose of omega-9:
- an increase in body weight (as a result of a violation of lipid metabolism);
- exacerbation of pancreatic pathologies (impaired synthesis of enzymes, metabolic syndrome);
- blood thickening, which leads to a heart attack, stroke, thrombosis;
- liver disease (cirrhosis, hepatosis).
In addition, an excess of conditionally interchangeable fats, especially erucic acid, negatively affects a woman’s reproductive function: difficulties with conception arise, proper ontogenesis of the fetus (during pregnancy) is impaired, lactation (during breast-feeding) is difficult.
To eliminate the effects of deficiency or excess fat, dietary adjustments are made. If necessary, the daily menu is enriched with pharmacological agents containing oleic acid.
Selection and storage of foods containing healthy fats
Despite the fact that monounsaturated omega acids are chemically resistant to oxidation, it is important to adhere to certain rules to maintain their beneficial properties.
- When choosing vegetable oils, give preference to products packaged in dark glass containers.
- Store products with omega-9 in a cool place, protected from direct sunlight.
- The maximum amount of beneficial lipids is present in unrefined extra virgin oils (“extra virgin”).
- To preserve fatty acids, do not expose omega-containing foods to prolonged exposure to high temperatures. Cook food over low heat.
- The shelf life of vegetable oils is 6 months from the date of opening.
Remember, high-quality olive oil crystallizes at temperatures below 7 degrees.
Omega-9 triglyceride leaders are unrefined vegetable oils.
Table “Food sources of monounsaturated fats”
|product Name||The number of lipids per 100 grams of product, grams|
|Mustard Seeds (Yellow)||80|
|Flaxseed (without treatment)||64|
|North Sea Fish (Salmon)||35-50|
In addition, omega-9 acids are present in almost all nuts and seeds.
Monounsaturated fats in cosmetology
Omega-9 lipids, in particular oleic acid, are the most important structural components of the skin. Under the influence of these fats, the dermis acquires elasticity, the number of fine wrinkles decreases, its antioxidant and barrier properties increase.
Manufacturers include oleic acid in lipsticks, products for the care of problem and aging skin, preparations for perming hair, hydrophilic oils, healing emulsions, nail cuticle creams, mild soaps.
Properties of omega-9 triglycerides:
- accelerate the regeneration of the skin;
- potentiate the production of your own collagen;
- increase skin turgor;
- level the microrelief of the epidermis;
- eliminate itching, irritation, redness;
- accelerate metabolic processes in the dermis;
- retain moisture in the skin;
- strengthen the walls of blood vessels;
- restore the protective mantle of the dermis;
- provide the stability of deposited fats to oxidation (with a small amount of antioxidants);
- liquefy sebaceous plugs, including black comedones;
- strengthen the local immunity of the epidemic;
- normalize lipid metabolism in the skin (eliminating cellulite).
In addition, fatty acids accelerate the penetration of beneficial substances contained in the oil into the deeper layers of the dermis.
Cosmetics with omega-9:
- Lip balm (Doliva). Hygienic stick consists of natural oils (olive, castor, peppermint) and vitamin E. Doliva Balm is used to soften dry, weathered and flaky skin of the lips.
- Organic hair mask with omega-9 (Rahua). The composition of the healing concentrate includes vegetable oils (sunflower, ungurahua, shea, rapeseed, eucalyptus, lavender), quinoa, glycine. With regular use, the mask restores dull damaged hair, strengthens hair follicles, normalizes the water-lipid balance of the scalp.
- Face mask with olive oil “Paradise pleasure” (Avon, Planet SPA). The tool is used to refresh, moisturize and tone the delicate skin of the face. The active components of the mask are olive oil, sunflower oil, vitamin E, beta-carotene, olive leaf extract.
- Revitalizing lipid cream (Lokobeyz Ripea). The composition is intended for the care of weakened, overdried and atopic facial skin. The drug contains oleic and palmitic acids, ceramides, cholesterol (fatty alcohol), glycerin, liquid paraffin.
- Body Lotion with Olive Oil and Vitamin E (Palmer’s). Lipid emulsion cares for dehydrated skin, eliminates itching, dryness and peeling. Olive concentrate is ideal for lubricating heels, elbows and knees.
- Night restoring cream (Mirra). A multifunctional organic skin care product for night rest. The drug activates the natural mechanisms of regeneration of the dermis, smoothes the structural irregularities of the skin, stimulates the synthesis of its own collagen.
The night cream contains fatty alcohols, lecithin, vegetable oils (olive, sesame, cocoa), flax seed polysaccharides, amino acid complex (glutamic acid, glycine, serine, alanine, lysine, threonine, proline, arginine, betaine), linden extract, D panthenol, vitamins F, C, E, mineral essence (lactates of zinc, sodium, iron, calcium, magnesium chloride, potassium, colloidal sulfur, copper derivatives of chlorophyll, potassium hydrogen phosphate).
- Cleansing Foam (Doliva). Cleansing mousse based on vegetable oils: olive, jojoba, castor. Foam is suitable for dry, atopic and sensitive skin. The product moisturizes, soothes and fortifies the stratum corneum of the dermis.
In addition, omega-9 triglycerides are used to create sunscreens with SPF factor. If such a tool is not at hand, pure olive oil is suitable for neutralizing harmful UV radiation. To do this, apply 15 – 20 minutes before sunbathing on a clean body.
On an industrial scale, oleic acid is obtained by hydrolysis of vegetable oils. For this, lipid fractionation is performed from olive concentrate, followed by multiple crystallization from methanol or acetone. The resulting emulsion (olein) has a pasty or liquid texture, which solidifies at temperatures above 10 degrees Celsius.
Scopes of oleic acid:
- Paint and varnish industry. Olein is used as the basis for the production of paints, varnish, enamels, flotation reagents, emulsifiers.
- Household chemicals. Salts and esters of oleic acid are auxiliary components of detergents, soap emulsions.
- Food industry. Technical fats are used as defoamers (when thickening products in vacuum units), emulsifiers, carrier vehicles (when glazing fresh fruits).
- Pulp and paper industry. Monounsaturated lipids are added to cellulosic mixtures to increase their fluidity and elasticity.
- Metallurgy. Technical acid is used as a cutting fluid in the processing of high alloy and stainless steels by cutting. In addition, olein is used to fine-tune steel surfaces of parts with metal removal to 22 microns.
- Textile industry. Omega-9 ethyl oleates are included in the composition of sizing preparations, which give the clothes water-repellent, fire-retardant, oil-repellent, hydrophobic properties.
- The medicine. Technical olein is introduced into the composition of pharmacological agents, as a filler, emulsifier, a solvent of vitamins and hormones.
In addition, the components of oleic acid are used in the perfumery, chemical, rubber and petrochemical industries.
Omega-9 is a group of conditionally interchangeable lipids that maintain the integrity of cell membranes, participate in the construction of myelin sheaths of neurons, normalize fat metabolism, increase the body’s immune status, and potentiate the synthesis of hormone-like substances. Without these compounds, the correct functioning of the cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous and digestive systems is impossible.
The main sources of omega-9 triglycerides are vegetable oils (olive, sesame, peanut, macadamia), fish oil, nuts, seeds.
With proper metabolism, monounsaturated lipids are synthesized by intestinal microflora. However, with a violation of fat metabolism, the body may experience lipid deficiency. To prevent an omega-9 deficiency, the daily menu includes 10 milliliters of olive oil, 100 grams of seeds (pumpkin, sesame, sunflower) and walnuts.