Water – the most common liquid on the planet, and its formula – H2O – perhaps the most famous chemical record in the world.
This is probably one of the most mysterious substances on Earth. At all times, people believed in the superpowers of water: in ancient ages they talked about “dead” and “living” water, today more and more you can hear about the mystical properties of a structured fluid. And researchers, the longer they study the properties of this substance, the more amazing discoveries they make. And even when it sometimes seems that all discoveries have already been made for a long time, scientists still find new pages in the “biography” of water, the unknown “talents” of this miracle liquid.
So what is this marvelous liquid about which our ancestors told tales and legends, to which believers all over the world nowadays, without which there would be no life on the planet, and, actually, from which the history of the Earth began? So, in fact, man knows about water, except that it covers about 70 percent of the entire area of the planet, and we ourselves are almost two-thirds of this substance. Now let’s try to understand what role is assigned to water in the Universe.
- 1 Water in terms of chemistry
- 2 When water is not liquid
- 3 Volumes outside the rules
- 4 And a few more unique features.
- 5 Where did H2O come from on the planet
- 6 Moisture on the planet
- 7 Water and … climate
- 8 Human benefits
- 9 How much moisture does a person need?
- 10 Who is more?
- 11 Symptoms of dehydration
- 12 Dangerous dihydrogen monoxide
- 13 What determines the percentage of H2O in the body
- 14 Fluid absorption
- 15 Water will save from extra pounds
- 16 To drink or not to drink – that is the question …
- 17 But water can not only drink …
Water in terms of chemistry
H2O is an incredibly simple formula, but behind it is the most important and probably the most mysterious substance on the planet. And even chemistry, as a science, owes its existence to a liquid – after all, it began with the study of aqueous solutions. Although the formula of water at first glance does not constitute anything complicated, the researchers admit: this substance has not yet been sufficiently studied, it still contains many secrets that humanity has yet to discover.
Water, or as it is called by chemists, hydrogen oxide, consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen. Combined, these three elements create an incredibly strong bond, which is not so easy to destroy. The whole secret is that hydrogen ions are so small that they can penetrate into the shell of the oxygen atom of the neighboring molecule. This forms a strong connection that combines 4 elements. The strength of this connection has protected the structure of water from destruction for millions of years.
Interestingly, “water” is not the only name for this substance. Her names, oddly enough, quite a lot. This is for us she is just water. And people of science call this transparent liquid oxide or hydroxide of hydrogen, oksidan, dihydrogen monoxide, dihydromonoxide and even hydroxy acid.
And by the way about acid. From the point of view of chemistry, water is considered as ampholyte – a substance that simultaneously has the properties of an acid and a base. And this is also one of the unique properties of water.
Dihydrogen is a chemically active substance, a solvent of other elements – organic and inorganic. And at school we were taught that N2O reacts with active metals (for example, calcium, potassium, sodium), halogens such as fluorine or chlorine, as well as with salts, acids and many other compounds. In addition, when heated, it reacts with some other elements (iron, magnesium, coal, methane, alkyl halides).
When water is not liquid
Perhaps there is no need to remind you that water is a colorless substance with no taste or smell, and depending on the conditions, it can be in a liquid state, steam or ice. And we are all so used to it that this fact does not surprise even children. Although in fact, all over the planet, only water is capable of such “tricks” – no other substance can afford such reincarnations. And this, again, is due to the special type of bonds inside the molecule.
100 degrees – not always the boiling point
It is well known that when the thermometer shows 0 degrees, water freezes, and at 100 Celsius it starts to boil, turning into steam. But this law “works” only under the condition of “correct” atmospheric pressure – 760 mm Hg. Art. (1 atmosphere). The melting point of ice increases in proportion to the pressure decrease, and the boiling temperature, on the contrary, decreases. When atmospheric pressure decreases to a certain indicator, water loses its ability to remain liquid: with temperature fluctuations, ice immediately turns into steam and vice versa. If you increase the pressure, you can achieve another interesting effect: for melting ice, you need a temperature above room temperature. And if, in the H2O formula, instead of oxygen there were its “neighbors” on the periodic table (for example, sulfur or selenium), the substance would boil already at 80 degrees.
But in physics there is still such a thing as a triple point of water. This term refers to the moment when water exists in three states simultaneously: solid, liquid and gaseous. Scientists say that to achieve this effect, pressure in the 0,006 atmosphere and temperature 0,001 degrees Celsius are necessary.
And another amazing ability. If there is no dissolved gas in the composition of water, it will not turn into ice even at 70 degrees of frost and will not boil even at + 150.
Volumes outside the rules
Density is another of the physical parameters characteristic of all substances on the planet. Water is no exception. But here it was not without “surprises”. H2O and in these characteristics was able to “break out” beyond the laws of physics.
Scientists have shown that the density of any substance depends on temperature and volume. As the temperature rises, the volume of the substance increases and its density decreases. But this rule stops working with water, the temperature of which is from 0 to 4 degrees Celsius. More precisely, with increasing temperature, the volume of water on the contrary decreases. And just because the density of ice is lower than that of liquid water, water bodies always begin to freeze from above, and not from below. And the ice crust formed from above does not allow the rest of the liquid to freeze through.
And a few more unique features.
In addition, as it should be, we perceive the fact that hydrogen oxide under normal conditions (at certain temperatures and pressures) is a colorless, odorless liquid. But it turns out that in such circumstances only water is capable of maintaining fluidity. In a similar situation, other similar compounds of hydrogen appear to man in the form of gases. And again, all this is the merit of specific bonds within the H2O molecule.
Have you ever wondered why, after knocking over a glass, the liquid does not “scatter” on the sides, does not crumble, but forms a puddle with clearly defined edges? Due to the specificity of the water molecule, the substance retains its viscosity and high surface tension (according to this indicator, dihydrogen monoxide loses only mercury).
Hydrogen oxide is one of the best solvent substances. Avoiding scientific terminology, this process can be described like this. Water molecules ring each solute molecule. But not randomly, but according to a certain pattern: ions with a positive charge attract oxygen atoms to themselves, and negatively charged particles – hydrogen. By the same principle, water fills the space in the cells of all living organisms.
And since there are almost always any salts in the water, that is, there are ions with a positive and negative charge, it also has the ability of electrical conductivity. At the same time, pure water that does not contain impurities of other ions, on the contrary, is an ideal insulator.
Where did H2O come from on the planet
Water is vital to the survival of humanity. Today we know a lot about this substance, except for the main and the very first: where did the water come from on the planet. Perhaps everyone will remember the picture from the high school, which depicts the cycle of water circulation. The teacher told how this liquid evaporates from the oceans and lakes, condenses, forms clouds and returns to the earth as rain. In all this, of course, there is a sense. Except for the only thing. This school picture in no way explained where the very first water came from …
It is believed that the history of the appearance of water on our planet is about 13,8 billion years before the Big Bang. Astronomers believe that comets and asteroids, which attacked our planet for millions of years, carried the fluid to Earth. But is it really all happening, today it is still difficult to answer. But scientific debates continue.
And most recently, researchers from the University of Hawaii, after analyzing the composition of the rocks on Baffin Island (Canada), came to an unexpected conclusion. They put forward a new theory – about the so-called “native” water on Earth. The rocks on the island “grew” directly from the mantle, without any influence of the earth’s crust. And in their composition, the researchers found glass crystals, and in them – water droplets. And what is interesting, the chemical composition of the fluid “released” from the rock is identical to the formula for the rest of the water on the planet.
Hawaiian scientists do not undertake to refute the theory of asteroids and comets, but they urge the scientific world to take a fresh look at possible sources of justice on our planet. Perhaps, when the Earth was still young, it was fed by moisture from several sources? …
Moisture on the planet
On Earth, as the researchers calculated, there are quite a few – almost one and a half thousand million kilometers of a cube Н2О.
At the same time, scientists argue that this value is stable and the amount of fluid on the planet has not changed for millions of years.
Part of it is superficial. These are exactly the reserves that are visible even from the Cosmos, this is the fluid that made our planet known as the Blue Globe. And it was the World Ocean that served as the beginning of all life on the planet. How did this happen? According to many scientists, billions of years ago, organic compounds were concentrated in closed ponds, which later helped to create life. Scientists have yet to study how this all happened, but the fact that water is the mother of all living things is perceived by modern science as an axiom.
The second part of the planetary moisture is underground reserves. Most often, they are a kind of giant vessels containing water under high pressure. The first underground “reservoirs” are opened to geologists already at a depth of just a few meters. It is these water reserves that serve as “donors” for domestic wells. Meanwhile, given that the top layer of the earth is quite loose, these wells of moisture are often dirty and not suitable for drinking.
But, by the way, even in prehistoric times, people knew how to purify water, making it suitable for use. For example, even the ancient Egyptians were the first on the planet to describe the methods of water purification. This ancient instruction of the “production” of drinking liquid dates back to about 1500 years BC. To make the liquid safe for consumption, the ancient inhabitants of the banks of the Nile most often boiled it, heated it in the sun, or submerged a piece of red-hot iron in the water. And to make it transparent, boiling liquid was passed through a layer of sand and gravel. Today, humanity resorts to other methods of water purification, using the knowledge of chemistry and physics.
Almost 70 percent of the Earth’s surface is covered with water. But 97% of all moisture on the planet is a salty substance, rich in various minerals and chemical compounds. Theoretically, a person can use it for drinking after cleaning from impurities. But in practice it is quite difficult and extremely expensive. Approximately another 2 percent of the planet’s water supply is fresh fluid stored in glaciers at the North and South Poles. These stocks could also serve a person to quench their thirst, if not for one “but” – these “stores” are too far from the habitat of people. Slightly more than one and a half percent of all reserves are groundwater, and 0,001% of moisture is stored in the clouds.
And only less than 1 percent of reserves Н2О really accessible to people. But this is not all the water reserves of the Earth. More 6 thousand cubic km. fluid is found in all living organisms on the planet. And these are plants, animals and we. After all, we remember that a person is 60-70 percent H2O.
If we calculate the percentage of all the water on the planet, it turns out that:
- 97,54% are oceans;
- 1,81% – glaciers;
- 0,63% – groundwater;
- 0,009% – rivers and lakes;
- 0,007% – salt water on the continents;
- 0,001% – water in the atmosphere.
Types of terrestrial water
Water on Earth is represented in salt form (more than 97 percent), fresh (2,5 percent) and in the form of brines (liquid mixed with salts, chemical chemicals, organic compounds).
But this is not the only classification of water. Paying attention to the content of calcium and magnesium in its composition, distinguish soft and hard water. Given the nature of the hydrogen isotope, the water is light, heavy and super heavy. In addition, some classifications are separated from the “common water pot” thawed substance, the structure of which, as sometimes assured, is identical to the protoplasm of the cells of our body and has useful properties.
Water and … climate
It is known that hydrogen oxide is able to give off heat, almost without reducing its own temperature. This is actually one of the factors that affect the climate on the planet. Moreover, the terrestrial reliefs by and large is also, figuratively speaking, the work of water. Being the second most mobile substance (after air) on the planet, dihydrogen monoxide is able to travel long distances, “engraving” reliefs in its path.
But the Earth is not the only place where water is “inhabited”. This substance is often found in space, although more often in the form of ice or steam. And it is this fact that allows some scientists to assume that life on other planets is also possible. Space researchers believe that some comets on 50 percent are made up of water (in the form of ice). And in 2009, NASA employees received reliable evidence that ice was present on the moon, and in large enough quantities. In addition, there is water-ice on the moons of Saturn and Jupiter (Europe, Tethys, Enceladus, Ganymede), as a part of asteroids, and also suggest that H2O is on trans-Neptunian objects.
But the atmosphere of almost all the planets of the solar system (and the Sun as well) contains water in the form of steam. Most of these stocks are in the atmosphere of Mercury – approximately, 3,4%. For comparison: the terrestrial atmosphere above the tropics contains about 3-4% steam, and in the Antarctic it contains only 2х10 − 5%.
But the water reserves of Cosmos are not limited to this. It is believed that water in liquid form – a common phenomenon on some satellites of the planets. So far, the greatest hopes scientists pin on the satellite of Jupiter – Europe.
It is believed that the person on 2 / 3 consists of water. But in fact, this indicator is not static, and the water percentage in the composition of our body fluctuates throughout life.
Most of the moisture is in the human embryo. The germ of the future person is approximately 97% water. A little less, within 92 percent of the fluid, is contained in the body of the newborn. Teenagers are already 80% water, and adults are “flooded” with 70-75 percent. And, as you have already guessed, least of all H2O in the body of the people of old age is only 60%. Is it because over the years a person loses vitality and starts to hurt? Does the quality of our life really depend on water?
Perhaps, water is the only substance, the absence of which the body reacts almost instantly and immediately with serious consequences. It is believed that without food a person can last several weeks. Deficiency of vitamins, micro- and macronutrients will cause negative consequences also after some time. But just enough for a few days to give up water, so that the body made it clear: this is a disaster. We begin to lose our “wet” reserves at the first manifestations of thirst. It is enough to lose only 5% of the liquid, so that there are difficulties with swallowing syndrome, hallucinations and fainting begin, hearing and vision are disturbed. If the water balance is not restored in time, a fatal outcome is possible.
Functions of body water:
- removes toxins, slags, salts and waste products;
- transports nutrients to all organs;
- promotes muscle contraction;
- plays the role of lubrication for the joints;
- regulates blood formation, blood pressure;
- activates the brain;
- “Starts” exchange processes;
- maintains stable body temperature;
- protects organs from damage;
- adds strength and energy.
Water is the main component of all tissues in the human body.
In each body, the concentration of fluid is different. The largest moisture reserves are concentrated in the ocular body (which is almost water 99%), and the lowest – in the enamel of the teeth (only 0,2%). There is also a high concentration of water in the brain (almost 70 percent), so an organ robot would be impossible without fluid.
Dihydrogen monoxide is everywhere around us. Yes, and we ourselves are also a kind of water. After all, more than half of the human body is H2O, and water is also necessary for absolutely all biochemical processes within us. So how does hydrogen oxide affect the functioning of the body?
The role of water:
- Proper digestion.
Proper water balance in the body contributes to normal digestion. Water helps to quickly and easily get rid of waste products, reduces the burden on the kidneys and liver during the cleansing of the body, prevents constipation.
- Cardiovascular health.
There is a relationship between the amount of drinking water intake and the risk of coronary heart disease. The risk of cardiac diseases is much lower in those who prefer clean drinking water, instead of sweet juices and soda.
- Muscle strength
Sweating in the gym causes the muscles to lose moisture, and when it is not enough, the muscles get tired faster. Therefore, to maintain energy during long workouts, it is important to restore the reserves of fluid in the body.
- Freshness of the skin.
Acne and inflammation of the skin are often caused by toxins. Additional use of water will help to quickly cleanse the body. Also, the correct moisture balance protects the skin from premature aging, drying out and the appearance of wrinkles.
- Cancer Protection.
Recent studies have allowed scientists to put forward an interesting theory. In their opinion, the development of bladder cancer largely depends on the water level in the body: the higher the indicator of moisture in the body, the lower the risk of getting sick. Scientists explain this theory by the fact that frequent urination allows you to quickly (and in large quantities) excrete carcinogens from the body, preventing their accumulation in the bladder. According to the same principle, the researchers believe, you can protect yourself from breast and intestinal cancer.
- Benefit for the kidneys.
The kidneys remove toxins, help control the balance of body fluids and blood pressure. The only way to maintain proper organ function is to consume a sufficient amount of fluid.
- Protection for cartilage and joints.
Moisture allows the cartilage around the joints to remain elastic and hydrated, and for the joints the water serves as a kind of lubricant. By the way, periarticular cartilage is almost 85 percent composed of dihydrogen monoxide, so it is so important to maintain a healthy level of moisture.
- Significance for the brain.
Dehydration is extremely negative for brain tissue, which begins to shrink without moisture. Without maintaining proper water balance, it is more difficult for him to carry out his functions, especially during exams or responsible cases.
- From respiratory viral infection.
The experience conducted with the participation of 400 people showed: in order to protect themselves from infections and respiratory diseases during an epidemic, it is enough to regularly gargle with plain clean water. The people who took part in the experiment were less likely to get sick, and the ailment proceeded more easily, without complications.
- Stamina and vigilance under control.
Dehydration always causes weakness and fatigue. Did you notice that you started to get tired more often, and your forces leave you? Calculate how much water you drink per day. Perhaps the cause of fatigue – a lack of fluid in the body. And if you need to remain vigilant for a long time, you should take care that there is always a bottle with still water at hand. Dehydration leads to deterioration of concentration, and also reduces concentration, impairs motility and memory.
- Remedy for depression.
Another interesting study showed that mood directly depends on the amount of water in the body. The higher the percentage of dehydration, the worse the mood. It is also interesting that, according to the researchers, water is also a remedy for depression. After taking a warm shower in the body, the production of oxytocin, a hormone that causes relaxation, is activated.
- This healing sound of the surf …
Saying that you can always look at fire and water, is known to many. True, the water should not just look, but also listen to its sounds, which, according to researchers, have a therapeutic effect. Unpleasant noises of public transport, construction tools and screams lead to an increase in blood pressure, accelerate the pulse, causing the release of the stress hormone. And the sounds of water, by contrast, are among the most enjoyable for humans. They are able to soothe and beneficially affect the entire body.
It is also believed that people living on the coast, have better health, and aqua aerobics bring more benefits, in particular for the cardiovascular system than classes on land.
In addition, water in the form of steam brings benefits to the heart. Enough for a month to spend on 15 minutes in the sauna, so that the heart began to better pump blood.
How much moisture does a person need?
How much water should you drink daily? This seemingly simple question has no definite answer. Over the years, scientists have conducted a lot of research, and each time voiced different numbers. In fact, there is no single answer. It all depends on age, gender, habitat and type of human activity. For example, people living on the coast, get additional moisture from the air, so they can afford to drink a little less liquid than others. But residents of hot countries, on the contrary, should control their water balance as thoroughly as possible, since they are more susceptible to dehydration.
Drinking fluids in smaller quantities than required by the body leads to serious disruptions in the functioning of systems and organs. But excessive watering is no less dangerous to health. So who and how much water laid?
Under normal circumstances, the amount of moisture in the body controls thirst and urination. And this is the usual water cycle. Meanwhile, do not forget that thirst can be a sign of some diseases, in particular diabetes. Therefore, if the desire to drink does not disappear for a long time, it is better, without delay, to see a doctor.
In 2010, at its next congress, European nutritionists suggested counting the minimum water consumption standards:
- 2 L – for men;
- 1,6 L – for women.
But these are only approximate figures that do not take into account a person’s lifestyle and physical activity.
In addition, there is a formula by which you can calculate a more accurate daily rate, based on body weight. To do this, it’s enough to know that 1 kg of weight should be taken daily for 30 g of water.
Who is more?
However, there are situations when the body needs increased fluid intake:
- constipation (increased fluid intake will help deal with the problem);
- cancer (people drinking a lot of water are less prone to bladder and bowel cancer);
- kidney stones (proper drinking water serves to prevent the disease).
The body’s need for water increases during breastfeeding and in old age.
Hot weather, excessive sweating, indigestion, accompanied by vomiting and diarrhea, are also reasons to add a few glasses of water to the usual daily intake.
Taking care of an extra bottle of drinking water is also worthwhile for people who consume too much salt. Probably everyone knows that after too salty food you always want to drink. Thus, the body signals the need for additional water, since excess salt distorts the composition of the blood.
Daily fluid intake also depends on weather conditions. Outside the window, high temperature and low humidity? These are ideal conditions for overheating of the body. To protect against “boiling”, the body begins to intensely sweat. Therefore, in order to avoid dehydration, it is important to regularly restore the body’s lost moisture reserves.
Symptoms of dehydration
Thirst and dark urine with a pungent odor are clear signs of dehydration.
Other symptoms include:
- dizziness, fainting;
- increased body temperature;
- muscle spasms;
- joint pain;
- increased cholesterol;
- hearing and vision impairment;
- dry mouth.
But the most serious consequence of moisture deficiency is blood thickening. In such a consistency, it is not able to effectively perform its functions: the organs receive less oxygen, and the metabolic products do not leave the body, poisoning it. All mucous membranes suffer from a lack of fluid in the body. Not getting the required amount of moisture, they dry up and begin to crack. Dry skin, acne, brittle hair, plaque on the tongue, bad breath, nervousness, confusion and migraines are also external signs of dehydration.
Interestingly, people from extreme age groups, that is, children and the elderly, are at greater risk of dehydration. If the baby began to breathe faster, became sleepy and sluggish, and the number of wet diapers per day significantly decreased, this may serve as a signal of dehydration. The lack of moisture in the elderly body usually causes confusion in the mind.
It is important to remember that diarrhea, vomiting, and profuse sweating during fever may be the cause of rapid dehydration. According to studies, the loss of about one and a half percent moisture causes a deterioration in mood, a decrease in concentration and headaches. A dehydration on the 2-3 percent adversely affects the functioning of the brain.
In addition, dehydration can cause such diseases as:
- gastritis and constipation;
Dangerous dihydrogen monoxide
By and large, excessive consumption of water does not become a danger to a healthy body. A man whose kidneys function spravno, is able to quickly get rid of excess moisture. However, stable overhydration (excessive saturation of the body with water) is dangerous leaching of beneficial salts. In particular, some athletes (especially marathon runners) who consume too much water suffer from acute sodium deficiency. But for people with diseased kidneys or heart problems, an excess of moisture in the body can be a serious problem – cause swelling, swelling of the ankles.
The organism can “tell” about the excess Н2О overweight, edema, profuse sweating and increased pressure. In severe cases, possible violations of the heart and lungs.
Proper water balance is an important aspect for human health and life. For this reason, nature has endowed us with “mechanisms” to adjust the level of moisture in the body. When the “indicator” falls below the permissible, we feel thirst.
What determines the percentage of H2O in the body
The percentage of moisture in the body – an individual indicator for each person.
The amount of fluid affects gender, age, place of residence, lifestyle and body structure. By the way, in obese, the percentage of body fluids is higher than in people with normal or insufficient weight.
But not only physiology determines the water percentage of the body. The nature of the diet also affects this indicator. Alcohol, coffee, smoking and meat consumption in large quantities accelerate the excretion of moisture. Water imbalances can also be caused by soda, which contains chemicals that accelerate dehydration. This knowledge is important to consider when making up an individual program of water consumption. But the usual table salt will help retain moisture in the body. Remembering this, it is easy to prevent dehydration in hot weather or after eating disorders.
A “cocktail” of 1,5 g of salt, 2,5 g of vitamin C and 5 g of glucose diluted in half a liter of water will help prevent moisture loss. This recipe is actively used by travelers in conditions of lack of drinking fluid.
Only pure water without harmful impurities is considered useful for humans. It is important to avoid the so-called “heavy” substance, which is an isotope H2O. Its main difference is in the structure of the molecule, and this subsequently complicates the flow of all biochemical processes in the body. Many researchers recommend to give preference to the “light” version of water – thawed. It is believed that this fluid can beneficially affect the cardiovascular system, metabolic processes and tissue regeneration.
Also, the process of water absorption is directly dependent on the state of health (worsens during dehydration and in old age). In severe cases, body water balance is restored using physiological or Ringer-Locke solution, administered intravenously.
Water will save from extra pounds
Lovers of all kinds of diets for weight loss, most likely, know that water helps to fight excessive appetite. Started up hunger? Cheat the body easily. To do this, it is enough to drink a glass of warm water that the body perceives as food.
In addition, according to studies, 500 ml of liquid can temporarily (for 90 minutes) speed up the metabolism by 25-30 percent. And drunk 2 liters of water per day, according to scientists, increase energy consumption by about 96 calories. It is better to give preference to cold water – the body spend extra calories to warm the liquid.
Other studies have shown: a glass of water, drunk about half an hour before a meal, can also reduce the number of calories consumed. Especially effective this “trick” works in the elderly body. And it is enough for dieters to drink a glass of water before eating 2 in order to lose more weight on 12 in 44 weeks.
But on this the effect of water on body weight is limited. Lack of H2O, on the contrary, can cause obesity. And the thing is that the thirsty organism, in a state of stress, sends signals to the brain … about hunger. A person begins to eat, and extra calories are deposited in the form of subcutaneous fat.
To drink or not to drink – that is the question …
The first, second and compote – this lunch set is known to everyone since kindergarten. In this diet, everything would seem to be correct, except for the order of reception of products. Usually we leave compote, tea or water at the end of the meal. And this is the whole mistake. If the liquid drunk before a meal normalizes physiological processes in the body and helps lower blood cholesterol, then all drinks after a meal are only harmful. Doctors strongly oppose this practice, since water dilutes the gastric juice, thereby slowing down the digestion process. Therefore, any drink should be consumed no earlier than one and a half to two hours after eating. But eating dry food is also not worth it. Sandwiches, pastries and other dry foods are best served with drinks or clean water.
But water can not only drink …
The recommendation of many nutritionists is to use at least 8 glasses of liquids per day. For some, this may seem too complicated. But who said that all the norm should be drunk? Some of it can … eat.
Sources of roughly 20% water in a normal diet are fruits and vegetables. Many of them are more than 90 percent composed of liquid, such as watermelon. But pears contain about 84% moisture, in bananas there is no more than 74% water. But all fruits are also excellent sources of fiber. This means that by consuming a minimum of calories it is easy to achieve a feeling of satiety. The same can be said about vegetables.
Meat and fish, although they do not contain as much water as vegetable food, they can still serve as a source of HNNUMO. For example, 2% flounder is water, chicken meat is 79%, and ground beef contains 69% moisture. As for chicken eggs, they are also water – by 63 percent. The relatively high content of dihydrogen monoxide is in yogurt (approximately 75%), milk (89%) and ice cream (87%). But in hard cheeses you should not look for more than 61% moisture.
15 most “water” products:
- cucumber (water content – 96,7%);
- leaf lettuce (96,6%);
- celery (95,4%);
- radish (95,3%);
- tomatoes (94,5%);
- green pepper (93,9%) (in red and yellow varieties the water content is 92%);
- Cauliflower (92,1%)
- watermelon (91,5%);
- spinach (91,4%);
- carom (91,4%);
- strawberry (91%);
- broccoli (90,7%);
- grapefruit (90,5%);
- baby carrots (90,4%);
- melon (90,2%).
Interesting facts about water:
- According to UN projections, the 2 / 3 population of the planet will face water shortages by the year of 2025.
- Drinking too much dihydrogen monoxide can cause death (so-called water intoxication).
- Water is the most common substance on the planet.
- If all the world’s H2O stocks fit in an 4-liter jug, the amount of liquid suitable for human use would be equal to a 1 tablespoon.
- Under some conditions, hot water may freeze faster than cold water (Mpemba Effect).
- Every day a person exhales a little more than a glass of water.
- When freezing, the water expands to 9%.
- The highest percentage of H2O is in cucumbers and in the body of a jellyfish (about 95%).
- Hydrogen oxide in liquid form reflects 5% sunlight, while snow – more than 85%.
- Sea water freezes at about minus 2 degrees Celsius.
- If the surface of the Earth were absolutely flat, the World Ocean would rise over it by 3 km.
- The water reserves in the mantle of our planet are 10 times the reserves of the World Ocean.
- Eighth of the land would be under water if all the glaciers melted.
And this, perhaps, is far from all that water can surprise us. People of science will probably have to continue to make amazing discoveries about this extraordinary substance. In the meantime, mankind, like hundreds of years ago, is enjoying the view of the sea waves and drops of morning dew, and with a sinking heart trembles before the water element during floods and thunderstorms, admiring the beauty and power of water.