Tartaric acid (tartaric, tartaric, dioxysuccinic) is a dibasic organic substance whose molecule contains two asymmetric carbon atoms. The compound is widely distributed in the plant world, occurs in the form of free isomers and acid salts.
The main source of tartaric acid is ripe grapes. The substance is released during the fermentation of berry drink, forming insoluble potassium salts, called tartar.
Food supplement is registered under the code Е334, it is obtained from secondary products of wine processing (yeast, chalky sediments, tartrate lime).
Chemical and physical properties
Dioxysuccinic acid is a hygroscopic colorless and odorless crystals with a pronounced sour taste. These compounds are soluble in water and ethyl alcohol, practically insoluble in ether, benzene, aliphatic hydrocarbons.
The chemical formula of the substance is C4H6O6.
Tartaric acid, due to the equilibrium and symmetrical arrangement of hydroxyl residues, hydrogen ions, acid carboxyls, is found in nature in the form of four isomers.
Varieties of additive E 334
- D – tartaric acid (tartaric).
- L – tartaric acid.
- Mesic acid (anti-vinic).
- Grape acid (a mixture of equal volume of l – and d – tartaric acids).
All forms of dioxiantharny substances are identical in chemical properties, but different in physical parameters. Thus, the melting point of l – and d – tartaric acids is – 140 degrees, grape – 240 – 246 degrees, mezovinnoy – 140 degrees. At the same time, the water solubility of the first two compounds is much higher than that of the last two.
Tartaric acid forms two types of salts: medium and acid. The compounds of the first type are well soluble in water, and in solutions of caustic alkalis form segnetete crystals. Monosubstituted acid salts are difficult to dissolve in liquids, including in wine and alcoholic beverages. Therefore, they are deposited on the walls of the tank, from where they are extracted to obtain an organic acid. In addition to grape juice, tartar is present in nectars with pulp and fruit pastes.
Properties and daily need
Tartaric acid is found in sour berries and fruits.
Its maximum concentration is concentrated in grapes, apples, cherries, tangerines, avocados, oranges, lime, black currants, gooseberries, sweet cherries, pomegranates, quinces, lingonberries, papaya, rhubarb. With a balanced diet, the daily need for an element is fully covered.
For normal body function, women need 13 – 15 milligram of tartaric acid daily, men – 15 – 20 milligram, children – 5 – 12 milligram.
The need for dioxia compound increases with increased radiation background, stress, digestive tract dysfunction associated with a decrease in gastric acidity.
The biological value of tartaric acid:
- protects the cells of the body from oxidation;
- increases the rate of flow of metabolic processes;
- reacts with radioactive elements, accelerating their elimination from the body;
- dilates blood vessels;
- increases the elasticity and firmness of the skin;
- potentiates collagen synthesis;
- tones the heart muscle.
Given that tartaric acid is toxic, the consumption of high concentrations of the reagent is fraught with the development of symptoms of overdose: vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, paralysis and death. Using 7,5 grams of compound per kilogram of body weight is fatal.
In order not to harm health, it is possible to increase the intake of a substance only after consulting with your doctor, especially if there is a predisposition to herpes, you are the owner of sensitive skin or the mechanism of assimilation of fruit acids is disturbed.
Use of supplement Е334
Due to the fact that tartaric acid slows down the decay and decay of products, the compound is widely used in the food industry. It prevents premature spoilage of canned and flour products. The raw material for the manufacture of additive E 334 is the waste generated by the production of wine drinks.
Tartaric acid is used as an acidity regulator and antioxidant in the manufacture of canned foods, confectionery and bakery products, table water, and alcoholic beverages. In addition, the wine substrate is used to loosen the dough, to fix whipped proteins, to preserve the plasticity and whiteness of chocolate glaze. The food supplement E 334 helps soften the alcohol “bitterness” of wine products, giving them a pleasant tart flavor.
Other uses of tartaric acid.
- Pharmaceuticals. In medicine, the substance is used as an auxiliary component in the creation of soluble drugs, effervescent tablets and laxative drugs.
- Cosmetology. Additive E 334 is a part of professional peelings, creams, lotions, shampoos intended for skin and hair care.
- Textile industry. The wine agent is used to fix the color after dyeing fabrics.
- Analytical chemistry. Tartaric acid salts are used to detect sugars and aldehydes in chemical solutions, to separate the racemates of organic compounds into isomers.
- Building. The reagent is added to cement or plaster mixes to slow down the freezing of the mass.
- Electrical engineering. Segneto salt (tetrahydrate double sodium potassium salt of tartaric acid), due to the piezoelectric properties, is used in the manufacture of microphones, loudspeakers and computers.
In addition, the organic compound is used to remove rusty stains from white clothing. For this, rock salt and reagent E 334 are mixed in equal proportions. Then the mixture is diluted with water to obtain a thick mass, applied to the stain. To enhance the “effect” the thing is placed under direct sunlight, waiting for the disappearance of the problem area on the fabric. After that, the product is rinsed in cold water, and then thoroughly washed in a warm soapy solution.
Tartaric acid in cosmetology
Additive E 334, in concentrated form, is used in cosmetology as a professional cleanser for wine peeling.
Dioxysuccinic acid gently dissolves the dead cells of the cornea of the skin without causing burns and mechanical injuries.
The results of the use of wine peeling:
- reduces the effect of “orange peel”;
- smoothes mimic wrinkles;
- activates the removal of damaged cells of the epidermis (exfoliation);
- “Aligns” the skin;
- lightens age spots and facial tone;
- gives the skin elasticity and smoothness;
- stimulates the formation of new elastin and collagen fibers;
- reduces sebum production;
- tightens pores;
- moisturizes the deep layers of the skin.
Considering that component E 334 potentiates the intensification of the whitening and exfoliating effects, it is advisable to use it for toning and brightening all skin types, especially with enhanced pigmentation, thickening of the stratum corneum, and signs of photoaging.
Tartaric acid, has powerful antioxidant properties: “binds” free radicals, slows the natural aging of the dermis. In addition, peeling based on it is used as a preparatory procedure before the mechanical cleaning of the face, sunbathing, cosmetic wraps (anti-cellulite, tonic, rejuvenating).
Contraindications to acid purification:
- pregnancy, breast-feeding;
- individual intolerance to the reagent;
- dermatitis, eczema, lichen;
- parasitic invasions;
- acute inflammatory and infectious diseases of the body;
- recent hair removal, shaving;
- education on the skin to be processed;
- wounds, abrasions, scratches;
- fresh tan;
- reduced blood clotting.
The optimal time to perform peeling is winter or early spring (until the active sun appears).
So, tartaric acid is a multifunctional plant compound with pronounced antioxidant and biostimulating properties. The main natural sources of the substance are grapes and citrus fruits. When taken orally, the acid “fights” with free radicals, accelerates the metabolism of essential substances, increases the elasticity of the skin. Due to its unique properties, it is widely used in the food industry, cosmetology, electroforming, winemaking, medicine, metallurgy and analytical chemistry.