Retinol, or vitamin A, is known in pharmacology as one of the most useful fat-soluble substances. But why does he have such a name, what does “vitamin A” mean?
The antioxidant known in modern pharmacology got its name not by chance – it is the first vitamin discovered by man, and from the beginning of the last century it is called in Latin the first letter of the alphabet. The properties and biochemical functions of retinol are so wide that it is probably easier to name those industries where it has not found its application than the scope of use. But still we will try to tell as much as possible about the beneficial properties of vitamin number one.
- 1 History of discovery
- 2 Vitamin A in food
- 3 Daily rate
- 4 Vitamin A and its health value
- 5 What is dangerous overdose of retinol?
- 6 Compatibility with other substances
- 7 Vitamin A is needed by everyone!
- 7.1 For women’s health
- 7.2 During pregnancy
- 7.3 During lactation
- 7.4 For children
- 7.5 For eyes
- 7.6 Effects on the endocrine system
- 7.7 Oncology and retinol
- 7.8 For teeth and bones
- 7.9 In infectious diseases
- 7.10 In sports nutrition
- 7.11 In cosmetology and skin problems
- 7.12 For nails and cuticles
- 7.13 Retinol for peeling
- 7.14 From warts
- 7.15 In veterinary medicine
- 8 The use of various dosage forms
History of discovery
The history of the discovery of vitamin A originates in the 1909 year, when the German scientist Shteppe launched a series of experiments on mice. The animals were first fed bread, kneaded with milk, but it was necessary to introduce food into the diet after extraction with alcohol and ether – the growth of the experimental ones stopped and they died. This made it possible to make a scientific discovery: the extraction of bread with organic solvents removed the lipids necessary for the life of animals from it.
In 1913, two more groups of researchers made a different conclusion: without lipoids (found in chicken yolks and butter), the development of mammals is impossible. A year later, having carefully studied the chemical structure of the oil, scientists found an element later called the “fat-soluble factor A”, or “growth factor”. In short and simple language, the main conclusion of many years of experiments was that the body is able to metabolize retinol only in the presence of fats. Another important discovery of scientists: the substance that is part of carrots, pumpkins, persimmons and other yellow-orange fruits, promotes the growth of mammals and resumes the development process.
This pigment was called daucus carota, or carotene (which means “carrot” in Latin), then the vitamins of group A began to be called carotenoids. In 1916, the first chemical formula of an open substance was the subject of a detailed study. Scientists were interested in what it consists of, where it is located, what it is useful for and how to remove vitamin in laboratory conditions. After the Second World War, the process of industrial production of retinol began, the chemical nature and structural formula of the substance became known.
Today, studying the chemical and biological processes of obtaining vitamin A biotechnology. We will not touch on narrow professional terminology and study what constitutes a coenzyme form or recall the empirical name of the vitamin. Let’s talk about the properties of retinol more simple and accessible language, but based on facts from different sciences.
Interestingly, under the name “vitamins of group A” pharmacology implies several substances:
- retinol, or, as is called vitamin A in oil, retinol acetate;
- retinoic acid;
- retinal (active form A1).
They are a different form of vitamin A from the general group – retinol. The functions of dehydroretinol and retinol are to promote the formation of tissues and the adequate functioning of the reproductive system. Retinal is indispensable for eye health, and retinoic acid improves the development of the epithelium. But more often, the vitamins of group A do not share, and when used they take into account the physicochemical properties characteristic of the whole group of substances.
Vitamin A Properties
- Pure retinol is a substance with a crystalline structure. Its color is light yellow. Actually, therefore, fruits and vegetables with yellow pigment are known as food rich in vitamin A.
- It has the ability to dissolve in fats and does not dissolve in water.
- There are different types of vitamin: natural and artificial. Manufacturers made sure that the useful properties of retinol were more pronounced in the synthetic isomers. But this, at first glance, a positive moment lies in the main danger: overdose with the use of pharmacy vitamins is not uncommon, since retinol in tablets or capsules is more concentrated than its natural counterpart.
- When products containing retinol are heated, 15-20% of the vitamin is destroyed. The “growth factor” is detrimental to the effect of storing food in the sun: the structure of the molecule quickly collapses under the influence of ultraviolet radiation and oxygen.
Vitamin A in food
Before you start the story about the natural sources of vitamin A, to study which food is most in it, it is important to emphasize that there are two forms of the “growth factor”. The first is retinol itself, a true “ready-made” vitamin, so to speak. His body receives from animal products. The second form is beta-carotene, or the so-called provitamin A, and retinol is produced from it in the liver as a result of the oxidative cleavage reaction. Sources in nature for beta-carotene are plant foods.
By the way, a glut or poisoning with a vitamin is almost impossible if its reserves are replenished exclusively from fruits and vegetables.
With this basic knowledge, it is possible to study in more detail which products contain substances of group A.
Products rich in retinol
As already noted, most of all natural retinol is in food of animal origin. Of great vitamin value are:
- fish fat;
- liver (beef), heart, brain;
- fat milk, butter, cream, cottage cheese, cheese;
- chicken yolk.
Products containing beta carotene
Povitamin A is a part of such plants:
- vegetables are yellow, green;
- fruits are yellow, red;
- spicy greens;
- herbs (nettle, plantain, dandelion, horsetail, sage, hops, mint, bearberry, clover, alfalfa);
- burdock root;
- violet leaves, raspberries;
- rosehips, hawthorn.
If you create a rating of products that contain vitamin A, then the first place, unconditionally, will take food of animal origin. Find out which foods contain the largest amount of retinol, perhaps by examining the chemical composition of food.
So to say, a loading dose of natural vitamin A is found in the liver, eggs, quail and chicken eggs. Among the products of plant origin champions are hawthorn and dandelion, 100 g of which are able to provide the body 160 with a percentage of the daily rate of beta-carotene. The daily need of a provitamin will be provided by 100 of fresh carrots or 200 of wild garlic. Also, do not forget about the presence of carotenoids in vegetables and fruits of bright color.
In addition to natural sources, synthetic derivatives of vitamin A are capable of providing the body with retinol. It would seem that in the heyday of pharmacology, biochemistry would take care of human health: he took a complex of vitamins whose chemical properties correspond to natural analogues, and you can not be afraid of vitamin deficiency, forget about the need to think through a diet. But before you drink vitamin A in capsules, it is important to realize that in fact, everything is not so simple. For full-fledged work, the body must receive vitamins and microelements in its main share from natural sources, and only to “tighten” the daily indicators, it is allowed to use a synthetic analogue from time to time.
It is logical that the daily requirement of a vitamin for men, women and children is not the same. For people of different age categories, the vitamin norm is also different. Moreover, the daily rate in mg is determined differently for residents of different climatic zones operating in different conditions. The comparative table contains information on the daily vitamin requirement for the inhabitants of our latitudes.
Dosage for different groups of people
|Children up to 6||400-600 µg|
|7 children mon. – 1 year||500-600 µg|
|1-3 years||300-600 µg|
|4-8 years||400-900 µg|
|9-13 years||600-1700 µg|
|Teenagers (male)||900-2800 µg|
|Teenagers (female)||700-2800 µg|
|Elderly people||900-3000 µg|
|During lactation||1800-4500 µg|
The numbers collected in the table show how much vitamin A is needed per day during certain periods of the development of the body. The traditional daily allowance may vary in some cases. For example, the dosage is adjusted for people with obesity, gastrointestinal tract and liver ailments, patients with viral and bacterial ailments. The doctor may prescribe an increased dose of retinol to people who regularly spend several hours a day at a computer, working mentally or in dark rooms, as well as with increased physical activity.
Climatic conditions can affect the indications for the use of the vitamin and its dosage. A moderate and cold climate usually does not require correction of the daily vitamin dose (of course, when it comes to healthy people). But residents of sunny, hot regions should take care of increasing retinol consumption.
Another important note regarding dosages. Experts from the World Health Organization claim that the source of ¾ of the consumed vitamins of group A should be food of animal origin, the rest – from plants.
Vitamin A and its health value
The fact that a balanced use of a complex of vitamins is of paramount importance for the body is known to all. But still, what is it for, what is vitamin A responsible for and what affects? In order to understand how important a function in the human body is vitamin A, it is necessary to figure out which processes are controlled by retinol.
The biological role of the vitamin consists of several aspects. Carotenoids have no equal when it comes to restoring the skin, treating eyes, and preventing cancer. This antioxidant vitamin is involved in the activation of the immune system, has a beneficial effect on bone tissue, its positive effect on the reproductive system has been proven. The versatility and beneficial features of retinol made it one of the most famous and most used vitamins.
Where and how is retinol used?
- Vitamins of group A take part in a metabolism, regulate a metabolism.
- Retinol promotes the formation of proteins and the growth of new cells. Indispensable for infants during the formation of bones and teeth, for the growth of a teenager. In sports, it is known as a substance that has a beneficial effect on muscles (it accelerates growth).
- It is important for the eyes – it prevents a number of ophthalmologic diseases, helps to maintain acute vision in poorly lit rooms.
- Anti-infective vitamin improves immunity, protects against colds and viruses, is used for the prevention of acute respiratory infections.
- Well known beneficial properties for the treatment of acne and acne. Vitamin A is an excellent medicine for psoriasis, quickly heals wounds, including post-burn wounds. Relieves wrinkles and skin stretch marks after a sudden change in weight. In cosmetology, vitamin A has been used as a universal remedy for beauty.
- It is part of comprehensive programs for the treatment of infertility, the prevention of cancer, indispensable for the gastrointestinal tract – a good remedy for the gastric mucous membrane of the stomach.
- Antioxidant vitamin is an important component of preparations for blood vessels and heart diseases.
- Found practical application in veterinary medicine.
When the vitamin is low …
Retinol deficiency can cause many diseases. Laboratory diagnosis, for example, a normal blood test, will help you to find out the real amount of vitamin A in the human body. Although in most cases, especially if the avitaminosis is “neglected”, the symptoms of the disease, as they say, are on the face. So, what happens in the absence of vitamin A in the body, what are the signs of hypovitaminosis?
The consequences of a lack of vitamins of group A are more than serious. In particular, retinol deficiency leads to a disease known as “night blindness.”
Low vision, drying of the mucous membrane of the eyeball, corneal clouding, feeling of “sand” in the eyes and discomfort in dark rooms – such symptoms in adults and children cause a lack of carotenoids. If you do not use eye drops, the unpleasant effects of the disease will only progress.
Hypovitaminosis A and neuralgic problems also go together. Insomnia is the most common disorder.
The lack of an adequate dose of retinol affects the quality of the skin (early appearance of wrinkles, follicular hyperkeratosis – “toad skin”, acne), teeth (enamel is destroyed), hair (dry and lifeless), dandruff, urinary and digestive systems suffer.
In gynecology, signs of vitamin A deficiency are considered in such manifestations as erosion, polyps, mastopathy, and even cancer. Also, the male reproductive system suffers from a lack of carotenoids: potency decreases, erection weakens, spermatozoids are not viable, the risk of oncological diseases increases.
When there is not enough vitamin A, the immune system weakens, the body becomes more sensitive to viral diseases, colds. In children, in addition to the tendency to frequent acute respiratory infections, there are signs of a slowdown in physical and mental development, growth stops.
At the first signs of a decrease in the level of vitamin A in the body, it is better to correct your diet immediately, rather than replace the natural retinol with its chemical counterpart.
Causes of vitamin deficiencies
But what are the reasons for the lack of carotenoids in the body and how to protect yourself from such unpleasant consequences? The most common reason for the occurrence of hypovitaminosis A is poor nutrition (insufficient intake of protein and fatty foods). In second place are diseases of the digestive system (malfunctioning of organs, in particular, the altered structure of the liver impedes the absorption of the vitamin). A third equally important reason is the rejection of vitamin E, which also affects the digestibility of retinol. At risk – adhering to a low-calorie diet for weight loss. Typically, a diet is a diet free of fat, and with a deficiency of lipoids, carotene uptake is not possible.
What is dangerous overdose of retinol?
Aware of the abnormality of the diet, you can take as a “helper” a complex of synthetic vitamins – pharmaceutical analogues of retinol. It would seem that in this bad? But, trying to compensate for the lack of vitamin with the help of medications, it is easy to go to the other extreme – to provoke an excess of substance. In addition, this can be achieved quite quickly: pharmacy retinol accumulates in the body several times faster than organic.
Hypervitaminosis disrupts the work of most systems, and disease with an excess of vitamin is just as dangerous as beriberi.
There are two forms of hypervitaminosis A – acute and chronic. The first form is a consequence of a single vitamin intake before meals or after meals in a particularly large dose.
Symptoms of acute hypervitaminosis:
- pains in joints, bones, abdomen;
- the corners of the mouth in cracks;
- hair loss and destruction of the structure of the nail plates;
- weakness, sweating (mostly at night), irritability;
- headache accompanied by vomiting;
- in women, menstrual disorders;
- deterioration of the digestive system, enlarged liver and spleen.
But is it possible to achieve hypervitaminosis only food? The answer is no, it is almost impossible. The exception is the inhabitants of the polar latitudes. Only regular consumption of the liver of northern animals, in which there is a large amount of vitamins A, can cause a natural surplus of retinol.
Chronic excess – a consequence of its systematic use in excessive doses. This form of hypervitaminosis is more common. Understand that vitamin A in the body in excess can be for different symptoms. The intensity of their manifestation depends on the amount of accumulated matter.
Signs of excess (chronic form): allergic reactions (itching, redness), peeling of the skin, pigmentation, insomnia or vice versa – drowsiness, confused consciousness, irritability, swelling along the bones, sores in the mouth, bleeding gums, irregular periods, indigestion, nausea, pseudo-yellow jaundice, double vision, hair loss, dandruff. With hypervitaminosis, newborns are at risk of hydrocephalus. Exceeded the maximum daily dose of vitamin consumed daily for several years is the key to liver cirrhosis.
It is extremely dangerous to exceed the allowable rate of retinol in pregnant women. Regular receipt of more than a daily dose leads to improper formation of the urinary system of the fetus, slows its growth, the child can be born with serious defects. Correction of the daily dose of vitamins is carried out even when planning a pregnancy. The method of use of the drug – exactly to the instructions.
Compatibility with other substances
The pharmacy range offers a variety of multivitamin combinations that promise to restore the supply of all nutrients for the body. But resorting to the help of tableted vitamins is the second step. The first is to adjust the diet, replenish the menu with products rich in retinol. It is easiest to do this in the summer when plants containing beta-carotene are available.
However, it is often necessary to face a seemingly strange situation: the daily ration is varied, full of valuable products for the body, but blood tests are still not the best. So why not absorb vitamin A?
First, as already noted, it is important to know what retinol is best absorbed with. And the regulation of this indicator depends to a large extent on fat. The absence in the diet of greasy food levels all attempts to replenish stocks of carotenoids. That is why even on the pharmacy stalls there is fish oil with vitamin A.
Secondly, when composing a menu, combining products, it is important to know how to drink vitamins correctly, that is, the principles of combining them. As for carotenoids, they are best absorbed in combination with vitamin E or zinc. A good combination option is vitamin A and iron, in which case the body will get the maximum benefit from both substances. But with acetylsalicylic and hydrochloric acids, retinol should be taken separately. And do not think about whether it is possible to drink with sorbents – with this combination, carotene will not be absorbed.
Vitamin A is needed by everyone!
For women’s health
Retinol, along with vitamin E, is indispensable for women’s health. Creating a positive effect on the hormonal balance, contributes to the normal functioning of the sex glands, regulates the menstrual cycle. Vitamin A is necessary for the breast in mastopathy, and also important in the fight against benign tumors in the mammary glands. Retinol in combination with folic acid is an effective means to eliminate menopausal symptoms.
Planning a pregnancy is a crucial stage for the future mother and child. Another six months before conception it is worth taking care of the balance of vitamins, because the next 9 months, the female body will have to provide the necessary trace elements itself and the fetus. At this stage it is important that the daily dose of vitamin A for the woman was calculated by the doctor and in no case independently adjust the dose.
It is better if vitamins and trace elements that are important for conception accumulate with food, and pharmacy medications and supplements should be taken if there are no contraindications. However, in order to eliminate the negative effects of vitamin A on the fetus, it is desirable to avoid synthetic substances.
Benefits of retinol in pregnancy:
- promotes the formation of rhodopsin (visual pigment), the development of the placenta and fetus;
- strengthens the immune system;
- has a beneficial effect on sleep, heart work;
- strengthens nails and hair, improves skin condition.
As research results show, vitamin deficiency is the main reason for the decrease in lactation. For nursing mothers, rule number one is to monitor the level of vitamins in the body: the quality of milk depends on this indicator as the main measure. It is especially important for babies whose body develops and grows rapidly when feeding a sufficient daily dose of vitamins, especially the “growth factor” – vitamin A.
But taking the vitamin orally is not the only use of retinol by nursing mothers. Apply it externally. Many women during lactation and feeding the baby faced such trouble as nipple cracks. And again come to the aid of vitamin A – its oil solution. Using it for nipples during breastfeeding can almost get rid of the problem: it is enough to 5-6 once a day to treat the injured area with vitamin oil, the chemical name of which is retinol acetate.
You can tell a lot, what is useful for retinol for kids. In the first years of life, when there are active processes of development of the body, the structure of the skeleton, vitamins of group A are important in the diet for growth and proper development of bone tissue. But when there is a child in the house, vitamin A should be present not only on the plate in the form of food.
Parents should take care that the retinol in liquid form does not disappear from the family first aid kit, as it can come to help more than once faster than any “first aid”, replacing ointments and nasal drops.
For example, with stomatitis, retinol in oil will quickly relieve pain, the healing properties of the vitamin will help to heal wounds on the lips or palate, and liquid retinol is indispensable for a runny nose in babies (dripping 1-2 drops to the child’s nose twice a day).
Why do I need retinol child’s body?
- for growth and development of the skeleton;
- for the formation of organs of the reproductive system;
- to protect mucous membranes from germs;
- for the prevention of diseases of the respiratory system;
- for acute vision;
- for acne in adolescents.
There is a need to take pharmacy retinol – it is better to ask the pediatrician what course of taking vitamin A capsules is best for the child.
Even children are aware of the role of carotenoids in vision. From a very young age we were told what carrots mean for eye health. However, beta-carotene in plants is good only for prevention. When the disease fully develops, another form of vitamin A, retinol in drops, comes to the rescue. Moisturizing eye drops with vitamin A (antiserophthalmic vitamin) are good not only for treatment, but also for prevention, in particular for people whose work is connected with a computer.
Interestingly, it is the lack of retinol that is the cause of the distortion of color perception, drying of the cells of the cornea and conjunctiva. Vitamin A has also been shown to be involved in the light sensation process.
The consequence of beriberi – the visual analyzer loses the ability to perceive and distinguish the light brightness. The distortion of light perception is the cause of the weakening of other possibilities of the visual apparatus.
Therefore, it is important at the first symptoms of the disease, and the discomfort to go to the doctor, and under your arms always have eye drops with vitamin A.
Effects on the endocrine system
Recent studies have revealed interesting facts about the effects of vitamin A on the body of patients with a diagnosis of diabetes. Under the influence of retinol, insulin production in diabetes mellitus increases, as a result, the blood sugar level stabilizes. This helps, if not completely cancel insulin injections, then at least reduce the dosage of the drug.
Lack of vitamin A and magnesium adversely affects the work of the thyroid gland: it loses its protective properties, and failures in the endocrine system cause a metabolic disorder, reduced immunity.
When they talk about the danger of hypovitaminosis A for the body, among the most serious problems is called leukemia – a disease that often develops against the background of thyroid disease. The best prevention of disease – proper nutrition. It is important to include in the daily diet a list of foods rich in vegetable beta-carotene and animal retinol.
Oncology and retinol
The beneficial properties of vitamin A modern medicine uses often and effectively. One of the latest revolutionary discoveries is the beneficial effect of retinol on the treatment of cancer patients. Experiments have shown that daily use of retinol throughout the year slows down the formation of metastases in the postoperative period. The course of vitamin intake as a preventive measure is able to protect against the formation of malignant tumors. Retinol acetate is known as a drug that treats skin cancer.
Speaking of cancer. It has been proven that smokers in 25 are at times more at risk for cancer than people who lead a healthy lifestyle. Smoking can cause cancer of the throat, lips, larynx, palate, and even the pancreas and bladder. And even children are aware of the dangers of tobacco smoke for the lungs. Therefore, for smokers it is especially important to monitor the level of vitamin A in the body. Daily use of retinol for six months will relieve from such a disease as leukoplakia (it is caused by chewing tobacco).
For teeth and bones
Retinol, which synthesizes proteins in bone and cartilage, is indispensable during the growth period of children and teens. Vitamin A is important for teeth (makes them strong, smooth, snow-white) and for gums (strengthens, makes smooth, healthy pink). Hypovitaminosis causes stomatitis, periodontal disease (an alarm is bleeding gums), and the destruction of tooth enamel.
There are two ways to compensate for the lack of retinol in the children’s body: resorting to synthetic analogues of the vitamin and adjusting the diet. Eggs, fish liver, caviar, carrots, fatty milk, broccoli, bell pepper, that is, everything related to vitamin A, should be present on the children’s plate.
In infectious diseases
The anti-infective properties of vitamin A were known long before vitamin C and in the fight against infections without an immune-strengthening retinol. An argument in favor of vitamin A is the results of studies that showed that in more developed countries, children do not die from commonplace infectious diseases such as measles, and regular use of retinol can eliminate complications in the case of chickenpox. Undoubtedly, resistance to infections is achieved in different ways: this is vaccination, and personal hygiene. But it also maintains the vitamin and mineral balance.
Speaking about the anti-infective and immunostimulating properties of vitamin A, it is impossible not to recall AIDS. The description of scientific experiments convinces that even small, but regular use of retinol can slow the progression of the disease. You can get vitamin A HIV-infected with food, but this will not be enough. AIDS is a disease when one cannot do without taking retinol in the form of pharmaceutical preparations or dietary supplements. It is important to regularly measure the level of vitamin in the patient’s body in order to avoid overdose.
In sports nutrition
Regular restoration of energy reserves is essential for the full and high-quality functioning of the body. Especially when it comes to people who are intensively engaged in physical activity. Special nutrition for athletes usually consists of carefully calculated proportions of proteins, vitamins and trace elements that contribute to the increase in muscles.
And since retinol is an important part of sports nutrition, there is a perception that they are recovering from vitamin A. In fact this is not true.
Vitamin A in bodybuilding is indeed an admired substance used in complexes for weight gain, but in this case, the change in body weight occurs not due to fat deposits, but due to muscle growth. Sports nutritionists, knowing the ability of retinol to accelerate the formation of new cells, used this function to build muscle. In addition, vitamin A is an essential ingredient in the process of protein synthesis.
But novice athletes should know: during the period of intense loads, it is important to use retinol regularly and in large doses – with food (making up the menu for the week, take into account which products have vitamin A), drink its pharmacy counterpart. Overdose can not be afraid, since with intensive burning of calories, the absorption of vitamin A is deteriorating.
The sports menu, rich in vitamins of group A, should consist of milk, eggs, spinach, carrots, fish, liver, tomatoes, pepper, apricots, parsley, dill.
In cosmetology and skin problems
In cosmetology, vitamin A has found its use as a rejuvenating component. Due to its low molecular weight it is able to penetrate deep into the skin, protecting and restoring its structure.
Retinol acetate for the skin is used as a remedy for pigment spots and against stretch marks.
For cosmetic purposes, vitamin A is used in creams:
- for the body (tones, relieves irritation);
- for hands (softens, nourishes);
- for legs (from cracked heels);
- for the face (with acne).
Also in cosmetics, the properties of retinol are used in masks for hair (improves structure, cures dandruff), in cuticle and nail products, for eyelashes, for eyebrows, for lips.
Use for cosmetic purposes, provides a combination of vitamin A with other beneficial components. A complex of vitamins A and E is considered the most popular mix. If you add a few drops of vitamins to an oil base (for example, from wheat germ), you will get an excellent tool for eyelash growth. The same mixture can also be used to grow eyebrows. To prepare creams, add vitamins A, E, D, B in a liquid form to the finished base (in ampoules or in the form of an oil solution).
The finished mixture can be equally effectively used both for heels – retinol acetate heals cracks and microdamages of the skin, and for the face – it provides treatment for acne. Also, zinc oxide can be added to the composition of a cream fortified with retinol – suitable for oily skin, dry acne. But it is worth recalling the school curriculum, for example, what the reaction of vitamin A with sulfuric acid looks like in order to understand: retinol is absolutely incompatible with acids.
Vitaminizing cream, inject retinol into it (especially if the drug is prepared for sensitive skin) in minimum portions – no more than 0,1-0,5% of the total. To the extent of skin addiction, the amount of vitamin can be slightly increased.
Liquid solution of retinol is good at soap making. But, so that the substance during cooking does not lose its useful properties, add to the already prepared soap mixture.
Recently mesotherapy is gaining popularity – anti-aging injections with vitamin A.
For nails and cuticles
Well-groomed hands are the calling card of a woman. Do you want to be proud of healthy and beautiful nails? Then, among cosmetic products, take the main place for vitamin A. Retinol in combination with vegetable oils promotes the rapid growth of nails, restores and protects them, moisturizes and softens the cuticle. It is enough to rub a few drops of the oil mixture into the fingertips in the evenings, and by morning we can compare what the nail looks like – the result will surpass all expectations. Not sure how to choose an effective nail care product? Why not cook it yourself?
Recipe number 1 for nails and cuticles
- vegetable (almond, coconut, grape seed, apricot or other);
- essential (lemon, rosemary, orange or tea tree);
- Vitamins E and A in oil form.
Mix the ingredients thoroughly. Store in the refrigerator in a dark vial. Rub daily for a month.
Recipe No. 2
Mix in a bottle (glass, dark color) of 1 ml of vitamin A and E, add 3 ml of apricot oil and 6 ml from jojoba. Mix. Pour 2 drops of lemon essential oil and 4 drops of rosemary essential oil. Rub daily into the cuticle and nail with massaging movements. The tool creates a strengthening effect, regular use will ensure healthy nails, relieve stratification of the plate, dry cuticle, stains on the nails.
Retinol for peeling
The active form of vitamin A, or retinoic acid, as it is called in chemistry, has found its uses in cosmetology as an effective preparation for peeling. Retinoic yellow peeling – a procedure that stimulates the process of renewal of epidermal cells and skin rejuvenation.
How does vitamin A peeling help?
Indications for peeling: uneven skin color on the face, blackheads, drooping cheeks. Well proven for dermatitis, accelerates the treatment of acne. The frequency of procedures – 1-2 for a month and a half. Depending on the additional components, the peeling mixture is left on the skin for different periods: sometimes no longer than an hour, in other cases – for the night. The result of the wrong procedure is allergy and intoxication.
Useful properties of yellow peeling:
- enhances the protective function of the skin;
- strengthens local immunity (creates a barrier for bacteria);
- reduces the risk of pustules;
- accelerates wound healing;
- brightens the skin (in places of age spots);
- promotes cleansing of dead cells.
But besides a lot of positive aspects, peeling with vitamin A can in some cases cause side effects. In particular, the procedure is prohibited for pregnant women, given the mild toxicity of auxiliary cosmetics.
Dosage form of vitamin A (retinol acetate) is an effective remedy for warts. The course of treatment – from a few weeks to six months, and the procedure itself – is never easier: daily rub oil-vitamin in the warts. It is enough to do it once a day, better at night.
In veterinary medicine
Only two of the well-known 13 vitamins in excess can become dangerous for the health of both humans and animals. We are talking about vitamins of groups A and D. This is important for pet owners to remember if they decide to artificially fortify an animal menu.
For the normal development of a cat or dog, a very small dose of retinol is sufficient, but a deficiency or an excess of vitamin causes serious disorders, in particular bone diseases. For animals, vitamin A is an excellent protection against infections, a substance to enhance immunity, improve vision, restore epithelium; necessary for the normal development of embryos. In short, the use in veterinary medicine is as wide as in medicine.
The course of treatment for dogs and for cats is different. In particular, cats replenish stocks of vitamin A from substances of animal origin, that is, “ready” vitamin-retinol. Dogs are able to synthesize the necessary substance from beta-carotene. These features are explained by differences in the metabolism of different groups of animals. But the course of fortification should be determined by the veterinarian, because hypervitaminosis is extremely dangerous for animals, therefore, the rate of consumption of synthetic retinol must be carefully observed.
Symptoms of hypovitaminosis in animals: impaired coordination, xerophthalmia, corneal clouding, epithelial damage.
Hypervitaminosis leads to diseases of the musculoskeletal system (claudication, fragility of the paws, tooth loss).
The use of various dosage forms
Pharmaceutical analogue of retinol is prescribed as a therapeutic agent and for prophylaxis, is taken externally, intramuscularly, and inside. The form of release of retinol is determined by the purpose for which the drug will be used.
What is sold in pharmacies?
Forms of release:
- tablets of different dosages, including effervescent;
- injection solutions;
- oil solutions for oral administration;
- oil extract (yellow liquid with a specific smell – like fish smells);
- vitamin A concentrate;
- powder (granules).
How to use different forms of vitamin?
- oil solution. Outwardly. For dressings, lotions for eczema, ulcers, burns, frostbite, for wound healing. Clean the wounded surface, apply an oil solution on it and cover the treated area with sterile gauze folded in the 2 layer. Repeat the procedure for 6 once a day. It is also possible to take the oil solution inside, but it is important to know how to use the drug correctly. To do this, drip 10-20 oil drops on a slice of black bread. Take three times a day after meals. Course duration – from 2 weeks to 4 months;
- tablets, dragee. For the prevention and treatment of beriberi and in cardiovascular diseases. Take 3-5 pills after a meal for a month. Then 2-month break and repeat. The regimen is the same;
- ointment with vitamin A. Apply on wounds, problem areas of the skin, with gout. In parallel with the external use of retinol, to enhance its action taken orally (in the form of tablets, pills or capsules);
- vitamin A syrup – with hypovitaminosis in babies;
- capsules – for diseases of the digestive, urinary, respiratory system;
- intramuscular injection – only in the hospital under the supervision of a physician (for night blindness, severe vitamin deficiency).
How to store and properly use?
The biochemical properties of synthetic vitamin A can be saved for a long time only with proper storage of the drug. Each medication or bioadditive is provided with instructions for use, where it is indicated how to take and keep. Here we list the general rules for all.
- Store the oil solution in a cool place.
- Do not apply retinol and creams containing vitamin A overnight – swelling may occur.
- Remove excess cream or oil from the skin with a napkin.
- Do not use the oil solution before visiting a tanning bed: such a tan can turn into a burn.
- Do not use drugs that have expired.
- Take a break between courses of application.
- Do you use retinol cream for the first time? Test it on a small area of the skin to turn off allergic reactions.