Vitamin B2

Vitamin G or B2 (Latin name Riboflavinum – riboflavin, lactoflavin) is an easily absorbed yellow substance, a coenzyme of various biochemical processes in the body that performs a key function in maintaining the health of people and animals.

Physical properties of the compound:

  • has a yellow-orange color, a bitter taste;
  • stable in acidic environment;
  • tolerates heat well (melting point reaches 280 ° C);
  • poorly soluble in ethyl solutions, water (0,11 mg / ml at 27,5 ° C);
  • insoluble in chloroform, benzene, acetone, diethyl ether;
  • collapses in alkaline solutions;
  • decomposed by UV radiation.

Despite the instability in alkalis, riboflavin is easily reduced by attaching hydrogen at the site of double bonds. These properties of vitamin B2 (oxidation and reduction) underlie the flow of cellular metabolism.

The structural formula of riboflavin is C17H20N4O6.

Let us consider in detail the physicochemical properties, significance, signs and effects of compound deficiency, how to fill the shortage, what is contained, instructions for use (daily rate).

Overview

Who discovered lactoflavin?

The synthesis of B vitamins occurs in the first half of the twentieth century. However, in the process of research, scientists found that some compounds in this category are rapidly destroyed under the influence of high temperatures, while others fully retain their physical properties, continuing to work actively in the body. This factor became the impetus for a detailed study of the group and the separation of “unstable” thiamine (B1) from riboflavin (B2), which is able to maintain its structure even when heated to 280 degrees.

The history of the discovery of the heat-resistant lactoflavin molecule originates at the end of the nineteenth century, when in 1879, the scientist Blis first obtained a useful compound. However, the identification of the substance was delayed for long 50 years. And only in 1935, the German biochemist Richard Kuhn artificially synthesized a vital powder in its pure form, necessary for the proper functioning of the body of people and animals.

The name of the vitamin B2 directly depends on the source of the compound:

  • verdoflavin (from plants);
  • lactoflavin (from milk);
  • ovoflavin (from egg white);
  • hepatoflavin (from the liver).

A special feature of group B vitamins is the orange-yellow color, which stains urine in a characteristic tone.

The basis of the riboflavin molecule is the iso-alloc-sazine nucleus (heterocyclic compound) to which the penic alcohol ribitol “sticks”.

Vitamin B2 can be synthesized in the kidneys, liver, tissues of the human body, healthy intestinal microflora. The positive effect of riboflavin enhances thiamine (B1).

In the food industry, vitamin B2 is used as a food coloring (E101).

The role of riboflavin

The substance is actively involved in the flow of energy processes, helping the body break down sugar. Vitamin b2 in combination with proteins, phosphoric acid, in the presence of macronutrients (in particular, magnesium), produces the production of enzymes necessary for the metabolism of saccharides, oxygen transport.

Together with the B9 compound, riboflavin is involved in the production of bone marrow blood cells, and with B1, it improves the absorption of iron.

What is vitamin G good for?

Riboflavin controls the work of the nervous, digestive, circulatory, cardiovascular systems. In addition, the use of vitamin B1 is that it minimizes the harmful effects of toxins on the respiratory system, improves the absorption of oxygen by the cells of the hair, nails, skin, increases the lifespan, participates in the synthesis of hormones, enzymes, promotes the normal course of pregnancy and the correct laying of organs fetus.

Nervous:

  • prevents the occurrence of cataracts;
  • improves lens focusing, adaptation of eyes in the dark;
  • strengthens sleep;
  • relieves stress;
  • prevents the occurrence of mental disorders;
  • improves metabolism in the nervous tissue;
  • reduces pathological excitability;
  • eliminates eye fatigue.

Cardiovascular, circulatory:

  • prevents blood clots (thins the blood);
  • dilates blood vessels (struggles with the development of hypertension);
  • acts as an indispensable element for the synthesis of antibodies, blood cells;
  • takes part in the process of building energy substrates, ensuring the normal functioning of the heart.

Digestive:

  • facilitates the process of absorption of fat from the intestine;
  • accelerates the conversion of B6 into a biologically active form;
  • improves liver biliary function;
  • protects the intestinal mucosa, stomach from mechanical, bacterial damage;
  • speeds up the metabolism;
  • involved in the metabolism of BJU, as well as tryptophan, which, in turn, under the influence of riboflavin turns into niacin.

The simultaneous presence of riboflavin and proteins in the diet contributes to the healing of wounds and the restoration of tissue after injuries.

Signs of deficiency and indications for use

The best clinical manifestations of vitamin B2 deficiency have been studied in experimental animals. According to studies, scientists have discovered that the deficiency of riboflavin in the body of animals leads to the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products (POL) in the blood and the development of atherosclerosis, cataracts. These violations confirm the key function of flavoproteins in the decomposition of LPO products and molecular mechanisms of synthesis.

Symptoms of riboflavin deficiency (moderate hypovitaminosis):

  • inflammation of the lips, tongue;
  • headache;
  • oppression;
  • inhibition of thinking;
  • increased photosensitivity;
  • deterioration of appetite;
  • lack of coordination;
  • weakness;
  • exhaustion;
  • a rash, burning sensation, or icy skin;
  • violation of twilight vision, pain in the eyes;
  • bleeding lips;
  • peeling of the whole body.

Signs of severe hypovitaminosis B2:

  • dysfunction of the nervous system;
  • hair loss (baldness);
  • disruption of the thyroid gland;
  • irritability;
  • seborrheic dermatitis of the nose;
  • slow mental response;
  • generalized rash;
  • anemia;
  • skin inflammation;
  • impaired iron absorption;
  • malfunctions in the digestive tract;
  • insomnia;
  • angular stomatitis;
  • weakness of the heart muscle;
  • conjunctivitis, blepharitis, cataracts;
  • enhanced vascularization of the cornea;
  • reduced weight gain in children;
  • growth retardation in adolescents.

Indications for use of the compound:

  • thyrotoxicosis;
  • eye diseases;
  • rheumatism;
  • hypo- and ariboflavinosis;
  • work with heavy metal salts, poisonous substances;
  • hemeralopia;
  • radiation sickness;
  • asthenia;
  • circulatory failure;
  • long non-healing wounds;
  • Botkin’s disease;
  • conjunctivitis, cataract;
  • enterocolitis, chronic hepatitis, colitis, liver cirrhosis;
  • pruritic dermatosis, eczema;
  • corneal clouding;
  • hypotrophy, anemia, leukemia;
  • bowel dysfunction;
  • red acne, candidiasis, neurodermatitis, photodermatosis.

Why does the body need riboflavin?

For therapeutic purposes, vitamin B2 is additionally used for: burn disease, frostbite, phototherapy, chronic hypoxia, excess / lack of carbohydrate nutrition, during the course of an acute infectious disease.

Contraindications to the use of riboflavin – nephrolithiasis, hypersensitivity.

The human body is not able to accumulate the compound, so its overdose (hypervitaminosis) is a rare phenomenon that occurs only when introducing or consuming synthetic vitamin in large quantities, several times higher than normal.

In this case, the excess substance is excreted in the urine, but the risk of the following reactions from the body increases:

  • local itching;
  • allergic rashes;
  • tearing eyes;
  • burning sensation at the site of intramuscular administration;
  • deterioration of vision;
  • numbness of limbs;
  • increased blood pressure;
  • disorders of the kidneys.

The daily rate of riboflavin for the normal course of metabolic processes in the body depends on the physiological state, physical activity, diet and human age.

For an adult male, this indicator is 1,6 – 1,8 milligrams / day, for a woman – 1,2 – 1,3, for teenagers – 1,4 – 1,8, for pregnant women – 2, for nursing mothers – 2,2, for infants – 0,4 – 0,6. The daily need for riboflavin for athletes, workers with heavy physical exertion increases to 2 units, for people whose diet is rich in protein products – up to 3 units.

Causes of riboflavin reduction

The correct course of metabolic processes involves the transformation of vitamin B 2 into coenzymes FAD and FMN. However, some substances slow down this metabolism. Along with this, the lack of nutrient in food, in 80% of cases, leads to a decrease in the rate of biochemical reactions.

The reasons for the decrease in 2 in the body:

  1. Cooking in an open bowl. Given the fact that the solubility of riboflavin increases when heated, draining the “spent” liquid at the end of cooking leads to the loss of 50 – 60% of the active substance. Cooking in a minimal amount of water under a tightly closed lid will help preserve the water-soluble nutrient.
  2. Sunlight. Products left on 2 and more than the window clock lose 40 – 50% of useful connection.
  3. Long storage or defrosting. A dish placed in the fridge on an 11 watch is completely deprived of riboflavin. When storing products in a frozen state, the daily loss of vitamin B2 does not exceed 1%.
  4. Incorrect vitamin intake. The biological role of the substance, when consumed on an empty stomach, is reduced in 2 – 3 times. Therefore, it is important to take lactoflavin during or immediately after a meal.
  5. Heating alkaline solutions that contain nutrients (lemon juice, whey, milk) causes the “death” of the beneficial substance.

Sources of vitamin B2

Today, pharmaceutical products of group B, containing a daily dose of nutrients, are on sale. However, to meet the daily need for riboflavin, nutritionists recommend injecting it with products of natural origin, since the use of a beneficial compound in synthetic pills, capsules, tablets can cause serious harm to human health in the case of overdose or taking a complex with an expired shelf life.

Therefore, the best way to provide the body with vitamin B2 is a properly balanced diet consisting of ingredients of plant and animal origin.

Consider what it is.

The riboflavin content in the products below implies that they are environmentally friendly, grown without the use of harmful fertilizers, chemicals, antibiotics that pose a potential threat to human health.

Table “What foods contain vitamin B 2”

№ p / pProductThe content of riboflavin in 100 g ingredient mg
1Pine nuts88
2Calf liver2,2
3Dry baking yeast3
4Baking yeast fresh1,7
5Powdered Milk1,4
6Mackerel1,4
7Dry whey1,3
8Dry cream 42%0,9
9Wheat shoots0,8
10Mustard powder0,7
11Almonds0,66
12Hard Cheese0,5
13Champignon0,45
14eggs0,45
15Cocoa0,45
16milk chocolate0,45
17Pasta0,44
18Melange0,44
19Turnip0,43
20Mutton language0,4
21Cheese melted0,4
22truffles0,4
23Bran0,39
24Condensed milk 8,50,38
25Chernushka0,38
26Caviar of stellate sturgeon granular0,37
27Sesame seeds0,36
28Mackerel0,35
29Beans (soybean)0,31
30broccoli0,3
31Dried beer yeast0,3
32Dry chilli, peanuts0,3
33Veal0,3
34Curd0,3
35briar0,3
36Dry lentils0,29
37Dried peas0,28
38Fresh parsley0,28
39Mutton0,27
40Spinach0,25
41White cabbage0,25
42Pork fat0,24
43Bitter chocolate0,24
44Wheat flour 90%0,23
45Cauliflower cooked0,23
46Asparagus0,23
47Flour rye 32%0,22
48Herring0,21
49Beef0,19
50Fresh green peas0,16
51fresh Milk0,15
52Cream0,14
53Buckwheat0,13
54Peanut0,13
55Oat flakes0,13
56Walnuts, cashews0,13
57Bread, black0,12
58Figs0,12
59Wheat flour 72%0,1
60Dry dates0,1
61Corn0,1
62Grapes0,08

From the list it is clear that providing the family with products that contain vitamin B2 in the right quantity is not difficult at all. Fortunately, the lack of riboflavin is not a dangerous phenomenon for adults, because their bodies produce a substance in small quantities, which cannot be said about teenagers.

The daily diet of children up to 16 years, and especially up to 10 years, should consist of products rich in В2 and fully cover the daily need for this nutrient. Otherwise, deficiency of riboflavin in a growing body can lead to the appearance of diseases of the nervous, digestive, cardiac systems, growth retardation and the formation of pathologies in the process of the development of internal organs.

The inclusion in the daily diet of 500 milliliters of sour milk and 100 grams of cottage cheese / hard cheese will help to almost fully satisfy the adult’s need for vitamin B2.

If someone in the family (most commonly in the elderly or children) has cracked lips, you need to include in the daily menu almonds (150 grams), beer yeast (100 grams), and replenish the diet with pork or beef offal. In addition, it is recommended to introduce into the diet foods rich in beta carotene (pumpkin, carrots, blueberries, black currants, tomatoes, red peppers, apricots, persimmon, spinach, green onions, broccoli, grapefruit).

In the case of taking synthetic vitamin B 2 (tablets), the compound should be consumed with meals. Otherwise, when receiving riboflavin on an empty stomach, poor nutrient absorption occurs.

Remember, all the B vitamins are closely related. So, taking one of them as a medicine increases the body’s need for other compounds of this group.

Vitamin Recipes

In the summertime, saturate the body with vitamin B2 by replenishing the daily ration of 300 with grams of raspberry fruit, blackberry (0,05mg / 100 g), blueberries (0,02mg / 100g). These food plants are preserved for the winter by the method of quick dry freezing, rubbed with sugar, and they also prepare healthy stewed fruit and jams based on them.

In the autumn period it is recommended to use lingonberries (0,02 mg / 100 g). The fruits of the shrub, when properly processed, are able to maintain nutritional properties, in particular, riboflavin all winter. The principle of preparation consists in the following: sorting berries, choosing whole and unbeaten, then quickly rinse under a small pressure of running water, pour into a jar (two or three liters), pour pre-boiled water with cooled water, keep cool (on the balcony) in a dark place ( In the box). On the day you need to eat 30-50 grams of fruit.

In late autumn, after the onset of frost, you need to collect the berries of mountain ash, which is also a source of vitamin B 2 (0,02 mg / 100 g). From them to prepare a biologically active mixture. For this, a kilogram of fruits of mountain ash must be bruised, eliminated damaged (rotten). Rinse the good berries (whole or broken) in running water and grind using a blender or meat grinder, adding 300 grams of walnuts or almonds. In the resulting nutrient mixture enter 500 grams of honey collected from mountain ash, wild rose or dandelion. Mix gruel thoroughly, pour into an opaque glass container, store in the refrigerator.

Drink a vitaminized mixture during the winter on 30 – 40 grams per day, drinking 100 with milliliters of warm, purified water.

Recommendations for storing products rich in B2

Eliminate unwanted riboflavin losses in vegetables, meat, fish, dairy products by observing the basic rules in the process of their processing and saving.

How to keep vitamin B2 in food?

  1. When choosing cottage cheese, preference should be given to a product of soft consistency: the more serum left in it after processing the raw material, the higher the riboflavin content.
  2. In the process of cooking, potatoes and peas “send” B2 to water, as a result, after draining the liquid, the finished dish completely loses its useful compound. Therefore, it is recommended to cool the resulting infusion to 30 degrees and drink at 200 milliliters / dose.
  3. During the heat treatment of food you need to close the lid. Otherwise, the oxidation of vitamins occurs and most of the biologically active components evaporate with steam.
  4. When stored in the refrigerator, vegetables lose 1% of the beneficial compound every day, and when they are washed under high liquid pressure – up to 5%. Given this fact, buying products in large quantities and soaking them in water for a long time is not recommended.
  5. Cook the cereal in water and only after cooking you can add warmed milk to porridge.
  6. Products containing riboflavin can not be stored in the light, they must be removed in a dark place (box, basement, cellar).
  7. It is forbidden to boil pasteurized milk.
  8. Frozen foods before heat treatment should not be thawed, as defrosting in the light leads to the loss of a fourth of the beneficial compound.
  9. Milk in a transparent bottle loses 2% riboflavin in hours of light for 50 hours. Therefore, you need to store the open product in a dark container in the refrigerator for no more than 3 days. Otherwise, the nutrients in it evaporate, and the liquid loses most of the vitamin B 2.
  10. The loss of riboflavin during the preparation of products is as follows: freezing – 0%, drying – 10%, quenching / roasting – 25%, cooking in water – 45%, heating – 5%.

B2’s “worst enemies” are baking soda, sulfa drugs, alcohol and estrogens. These substances completely destroy the useful molecules of the compound.

Thus, the greatest amount of vitamin B 2 is found in foods in its natural (fresh) form. However, if heat treatment is necessary, the ingredients (for example, meat, cauliflower, offal) should be cooked quickly, under the lid.

Vitamin B2, as a coenzyme

In foods used, riboflavin is, as a rule, in a bound state — in the composition of the coenzymes flavin adenine dinucleotide [FAD] and flavin mononucleotide [FMN], which are connected by proteins. When ingested, in the digestive tract, vitamin B2 is influenced by enzymes as a result of which the beneficial compound is released and absorbed in the small intestine. After this reaction takes place, the reverse process starts in the tissues: the formation of coenzymes FAD, FMN from riboflavin, which are part of many enzymes.

What enzymes does B2 contain?

One of the most important enzymes produced by the human body and containing riboflavin is glutathione reductase. It provides the reduction of glutathione (cellular antioxidant) after oxidation. This organic matter (tripeptide γ-glutamylcysteinylglycine) plays an important role: it protects cells from the detrimental effect of peroxide compounds, free radicals, contributing to the body’s adaptation to adverse environmental conditions.

When entering into a bond with radicals, glutathione releases its electron to active molecules, activating compounds. At the same time, after the reaction, the tripeptide is oxidized, losing protective beneficial properties. In order to increase the antioxidant capacity of the cell, glutathione reductase restores the “spent” glutathione, returning its functions.

In addition, vitamin B2, as a coenzyme, is actively involved in redox reactions. It is known that oxidative processes can cause irreparable harm to the cells of the body, as a result, slowing their flow helps to resist the development of a merciless disease – cancer.

Also, riboflavin is involved in the exchange of B6, folic acid, niacin, iron and is part of the coenzymes that contribute to the breakdown of BZHU and their transition into energy form.

Interaction with other substances

Cooking a small amount of food at one time (without re-heat treatment), placing frozen food immediately in boiling water (without first thawing) or in an oven (in aluminum foil) will help to preserve riboflavin in products as much as possible.

Remember, the absorption of vitamin B2 affects the intake of certain drugs.

Consider the compatibility of lactoflavin and other drugs.

  1. The simultaneous intake of riboflavin, pyridoxine, vitamin K and folic acid leads to a mutual enhancement of the action of nutrients.
  2. Thyroidine increases the rate of conversion of vitamin B2 into coenzyme compounds.
  3. Erythromycin and tetracycline increase the excretion of lactoflavin.
  4. Riboflavin together with nicotinic acid activates the mechanisms of detoxification of the body, as a result of which the output of the final metabolites of metabolism is accelerated.
  5. Powerful tranquilizers (fluorothiazine, aminazine), tricyclic antidepressants (imipramine, amitriptyline) and peripheral vasodilators (hydralazine, diazoxide, minoxidil) inhibit the utilization of vitamin B2, disrupting the synthesis of coenzyme forms.
  6. Riboflavin increases zinc bioavailability.
  7. Co-administration of lactoflavin and iron leads to the accumulation and enhancement of the pharmacological properties of the trace element.
  8. Neuroleptics used in depression and psychosis, in particular chlorpromazine, inhibit the conversion of nutrient into a biologically active form.
  9. Spironolactone diuretic blocks the synthesis of vitamin B2.
  10. Antihypertensive drugs enhance the transformation of riboflavin to biologically active compounds.
  11. In the presence of boric acid, vitamin B2 is destroyed.

Given the mechanism of action and the compatibility of medicinal substances, you can easily make an effective scheme for taking nutrients, and subsequently prevent avitaminosis.

Riboflavin during pregnancy and bodybuilding

The mother’s body is the only “source” of nutrients for the developing fetus in the womb. Along with negative genetic factors, lack of basic nutrients, in 70% of cases, leads to disruption of pregnancy, premature birth, bleeding and the emergence of toxicosis. In addition, most of the diseases detected in newborns are acquired during fetal development.

Numerous scientific studies confirm the direct relationship between nutrient deficiencies and defects in the development of the embryo. In view of this, expectant mothers should take organic food additives and multivitamin complexes.

One of the most important nutrients during pregnancy is riboflavin (in Latin – Riboflavin). Vitamin B2 is necessary for the proper formation of the nervous system, muscles and bone skeleton in the developing fetus. Lack of this substance can lead to fetal death of the embryo, early birth, the appearance of congenital anomalies (growth retardation, skin, eye damage) in infants, decreased lactation, and development of a future mother’s seborrheic dermatitis.

The daily requirement for pregnant women in 2 is 1,8 – 2,1 milligram, and for nursing mothers – 1,9 – 2,5 milligram. Do not be afraid if, on the background of taking a vitamin, the urine turns bright yellow. This phenomenon is absolutely harmless and safe for both organisms.

Since lactoflavin is one of the main “participants” of protein metabolism, it is advisable to use it for strength sports and bodybuilding. Vitamin A is especially useful for professional athletes, as it helps transform the received energy into muscular relief of the body. In addition, nutrient regulates the supply of oxygen to the muscles, as a result of which the risk of hypoxia during training is reduced by half.

The daily intake of vitamin B2 for bodybuilders – 3 – 5 milligrams. Reception of food additives in which there is riboflavin, increases the results of strength training twice.

Effects of Vitamin B2

The mechanism of biological action of riboflavin is to build two coenzymes that are involved in the synthesis of the ATP molecule and some proteins (erythropoietin, hemoglobin, catecholamines), which are part of the body’s redox enzyme systems. Along with this, vitamin B2 – an indispensable “assistant” for the eyes. Protecting the retina from excessive exposure to ultraviolet rays, the nutrient is involved in the construction of visual purpura. At the same time, the absorption spectra of lactoflavin (maxima) lie in the region of 445, 375, 260 and 225 nanometers.

Healing Effects of Vitamin B2

  1. Antihypoxic. Riboflavin supports the ability of cells to synthesize and effectively use the energy molecules of ATP, including in violation of the supply of oxygen to tissues.
  2. Adaptive-trophic. With regular vitamin intake, normalization of metabolic processes in the body and improvement of the functional state of the brain occurs.
  3. Detoxifying. Lactoflavin, as part of complex therapy for liver recovery, enhances the hepatoprotective effect of herbal preparations. Due to this, the barrier, excretory and digestive functions of the organ are increased.
  4. Keratoplastic. Nutrient is used to normalize the process of keratinization of the skin, resorption of inflammatory infiltrates, restoration of the normal structure of the dermis and epidermis.
  5. Anabolic. Since vitamin B2 increases the activity of enzymes of plastic energy exchange and stimulates the synthesis of protein metabolism, with increasing dosage, there is a systematic increase in lean body mass.
  6. Neurotropic. Enriching the daily diet with foods that contain lactoflavin leads to increased synthesis of neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, GABA, acetylcholine) in the brain and the restoration of the myelin sheaths of the nerve trunks (in combination with lecithin).

The above effects are relevant only if the daily nutrient deficiency is fully covered.

Scientific studies conducted in the 2004 year, by nutritionists Ruslana Pisoppel and Vladimir Dadali, confirm the fact that the concentration of biologically active substances in products has significantly decreased in the last 20 years. Therefore, every day there is a need to receive a huge amount of various foods. And since many vitamins, including riboflavin, are not able to accumulate by the body, it is almost impossible to maintain their desired balance in the blood. Therefore, to compensate for the deficiency of nutrients, it is advisable to use dietary supplements in tablets, in capsules or in the form of dragees.

Balanced complexes of B vitamins – “Neurobion”, “Neurostabil”, “Vita B Plus”, “Vita-Escort”, “Vitabalance 2000”, “B – 50”. However, these drugs, in addition to useful substances, contain capsule shells consisting of harmful ingredients: gelatin, starch, dyes. The use of liquid riboflavin (in ampoules) will help prevent a negative reaction of the body with individual intolerance to the component. The composition of the vitamin solution includes distilled water and pure lactoflavin.

Clinical application

For the treatment of B2 vitamin deficiency, 10 milligrams of the organic nutrient 3 – 5 is taken once a day (orally or parenterally). Against the background of taking medications, it is advisable to follow a healthy diet.

If the mucous membranes of the mouth are filled with infections, to which the infection has joined, simultaneously with the therapy, local treatment should be carried out – lotions, ointments, rinses, antibiotics. However, beriberi, as an independent disease, occur relatively rarely. More often, nutrient deficiency occurs along with other pathologies against the background of long-term microelementosis. In such cases, vitamin B2 combined with other drugs.

Therapeutic use of riboflavin

Pathology of the gastrointestinal tract

It is especially important to use vitamin B2 for toxic lesions of the digestive organs, in particular, Botkin’s disease. This pathology leads to impaired liver function (carbohydrate, antitoxic, pigmented) and pancreas (incretory). As a result, riboflavin metabolism and insular blood activity are inhibited. The severe course of the disease is accompanied by a sharp decrease in lactoflavin in urine.

According to Dr. T. N Zabelina, vitamin B2, as part of the complex therapy of Botkin’s disease, improves laboratory blood and urine parameters (Quick test, bilirubin level). As you recover, there is an increase in the excretion of riboflavin with urine. This phenomenon is used as an indicator of the severity of the course of an infectious disease. In addition, riboflavin metabolism is also impaired with other liver anomalies (cirrhosis, fatty degeneration, structural degeneration).

Since the affected organ is “unable” to accumulate nutrient, as a result, hypovitaminosis gradually develops. In view of this, the use of vitamin B2 is a clinically justified solution. If the patient has diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (enterocolitis, anacid gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux, small intestine dysfunctions), as a result of which the natural absorption of vitamin is disturbed, the drug should be administered parenterally.

Heart Disease

These pathologies in 95% of cases are accompanied by metabolic disorders in the myocardium. Vitamin B2, as part of complex therapy, helps to normalize metabolism in the heart muscle, since it stores the maximum amount of riboflavin.

Endocrine ring pathology

Increased thyroid function and bazedova disease increase the excretion of vitamin B2 in the urine. Therefore, in the presence of these problems, it is advisable to take riboflavin additionally. In addition, the excretion of a substance with urine is enhanced by pathologies of the pancreas, in particular, diabetes mellitus. Parenteral administration of a nutrient makes up for its deficiency and causes a short-term decrease in hyperglycemia.

Violation of riboflavin metabolism is also relevant for people suffering from Addison’s disease. In this case, the outflow of beneficial compounds with urine is reduced by 3 times. Therefore, along with vitamin B2, a drug is used – deoxycorticosterone. Steroid hormone, acting on the adrenal cortex, stimulates the phosphorylation of riboflavin. As a result of this, normalization of the urinary excretion of the substance occurs.

Dermatology

Vitamin B2 is used in the treatment of streptococcal skin lesions, erythroderma, seborrheic eczema, exfoliative dermatitis, burns, photodermatosis.

Ophthalmologic diseases

Metabolic processes in the eye occur with the participation of lactoflavin. Therefore, the presence of ophthalmic pathologies (primary glaucoma, presenile cataract, corneal vascularization, non-infectious conjunctivitis, keratitis of unknown etiology) and functional visual disturbances are direct indications for additional intake of vitamin B2. In addition, the nutrient is used in the treatment of migraines caused by eye strain. In the clinic of these diseases, riboflavin is used parenterally, orally and topically. For external use, the optimal form of release is eye drops (2%).

In the obstetric clinic

In pregnant women, in 80% of cases, a low concentration of riboflavin in the blood. This problem is especially relevant for puerperas, who suffer from cracked nipples. Preventive nutrient intake during pregnancy helps to prevent the development of mastitis and to reduce pain in the chest in 4 times. How to take vitamin B2? It is recommended that expectant mothers (in the last trimester) inject 20 milligrams of the substance into the diet per day, and women, during the week after delivery, 20 milligrams twice a day.

If there are cracks on the nipples, oral intake of the nutrient (20 milligrams 2 once a day) ) it is advisable to combine with local treatment with riboflavin ointment. For this, 2% solution is applied to the lesion three times a day after feeding.

In cosmetology

Given the fact that lactoflavin is a “skin” vitamin, a good complexion is impossible without it. The consumption of B2-containing products in combination with the external use of riboflavin masks (1 once a week) leads to the activation of oxygen “transport” to tissues and improves the performance of capillaries. Due to this, acne is reduced, the complexion improves and the skin regeneration process accelerates.

Vitamin B2, indispensable for hair and nails, as it helps to normalize the metabolism of fatty acids. When choosing riboflavin cosmetics, it is important to carefully examine the brand’s reputation and value. The production of high-quality products that contain a high concentration of the active substance is a labor-intensive and costly process.

Therefore, many companies, using a negligible amount of vitamin, hide the true composition of the drug. An exception is some professional brands that cosmetologists take advantage of (Academie Scientifique de Beaute, Adonia Organics, Hysqia, Adina Cosmetics Professional, Beaubelle).

Diseases of the newborn

The definition of bilirubin in the child’s blood is a direct indication for phototherapy. When exposed to light, in addition to the destruction of the jaundice-causing toxin, natural decomposition of vitamin B2 occurs. Therefore, nutrient is included in the complex therapy of newborns. The daily intake of riboflavin for children (0 up to 6 months) is 0,3 milligram.

For losing weight

Vitamin B2 is involved in the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which regulates the metabolism in the body. Therefore, for a person who wants to lose weight, this nutrient is a daily “assistant”. Increase the daily dosage of riboflavin should only be prescribed by the attending doctor.

Conclusion

Thus, vitamin B2 or riboflavin is one of the most important water-soluble vitamins, the substance of “health and beauty”, the coenzyme of most biochemical processes, the engine of the body in the processes of energy production in cells, growth promoter and the best assistant in the treatment of neurological and eye diseases. The compound plays a key role in the course of redox reactions, in the work of the heart, digestive and nervous systems. Therefore, for a person to feel well, it is important to ensure the systematic (daily) intake of riboflavin in the body in the amount of the daily norm.

The greatest amount of B2 vitamin is found in fresh milk, pine nuts, fresh meat.

The presence of foods rich in riboflavin in the daily menu – a guarantee of good health of all family members.

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