Ergocalciferol (D2) is one of the forms of vitamin D produced by ultraviolet radiation on ergosterol. A person receives a compound with food (mainly of animal origin) and from his own skin (malpigium layer of the epidermis), where it is produced under the influence of UV rays. The activity of the process directly depends on the intensity of exposure.
Lack of sunlight in growing children causes a violation of bone formation – rickets.
Vitamin D2 regulates phosphorus-calcium metabolism in the body, promotes the absorption of elements in the intestines and their deposition in the bones.
Ergocalciferol is a colorless prismatic crystals, odorless, soluble in triglycerides, fat solvents (ethyl acetate, chloroform, benzene, alcohol, acetone), vegetable oils, and they are not soluble in water.
The vitamin is stable to high temperatures (the melting point of the substance reaches 121 degrees), alkalis and unstable to the effects of air, oxygen, light.
The chemical structural formula of ergocalciferol is C28H44O.
The molecular weight of the nutrient is 396.66 gram / mol.
Under the action of the strongest oxidizing agents, the D2 compound is destroyed: the triene conjugate system is broken, which is accompanied by the formation of the ketone C19 (sometimes the ketone 250) or the unsaturated C21 aldehyde.
- 1 How to get the connection
- 2 Physiological properties
- 3 Daily intake of vitamin D2
- 4 Instructions for use
- 5 Categories of people needing increased admission D2
- 6 Lack of vitamin
- 7 Excess D2
- 8 Indications and contraindications
- 9 “Suppliers” of vitamin D2 in the body
- 10 Interaction with other substances
- 11 Therapeutic application
- 12 Vitamin D2 and Rachitis
- 13 Scheme for taking ergocalciferol
- 14 Feature of application
How to get the connection
The provitamin for ergocalciferol is ergosterol. The compound was first isolated from yeast under the influence of UV irradiation.
The discovery of group D vitamins is associated with the search for treatment of rickets. In 1921, the American biochemist Elmer Werner McCollum discovered a new component in cod fat during the experiment. The resulting substance (vitamin D) had a strong anti-antihazic effect. Thus, scientists have concluded that products containing a beneficial compound can prevent the development of bone disease.
When D2 enters the body, the absorption of ergocalciferol occurs in the small intestine. After complete absorption, calciferol is found in the form of ether and in free form as part of chylomicrons. Bioavailability of the compound ranges from 60 to 90%.
Consider what biochemical processes involved ergocalciferol in the human body:
- Provides normal skeleton formation: prevents the development of rickets, osteoporosis, delays the deposition of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus in the tissues, prevents softening, osteomalacia of bones. In addition, vitamin D2 restores the protective membrane of the nerve, prevents the occurrence of hereditary diseases by enhancing the transcription of RNA, DNA. Phosphorus reabsorption in kidneys in healthy children is 82,5%, in children at an early stage of rickets development this indicator drops to 69%, with the disease progressing (severe form) decreases to 34,8%. Deficiency of the “solar” compound leads to a decrease in calcium in the blood. As well as an increase in the level of the hormone of the stratiform glands, which inhibit the reabsorption of phosphorus and increased excretion of the substance with urine. According to published data, D2 reduces alkaline phosphatases in the blood. Normal bone formation occurs with the participation of vitamins A and C, which enhance the synthetic reactions in the skeleton.
- Involved in the regulation of immune function: increases the body’s resistance to infections. Therefore, it is not surprising that when evaluating the expected life expectancy of HIV-positive people, an important indicator is the content of D2 in the blood.
- Activates muscle activity. Over the past 10 years, in the course of research, scientists have found that vitamin D2 prevents the appearance of weakness in muscles. This is especially true for people in old age. Nutrient deficiency is associated with the accumulation of triglycerides in muscle tissue, which leads to a decrease in strength and physical performance.
- Regulates blood pressure, reduces the risk of heart disease, blood vessels. These therapeutic properties of ergocalciferol are manifested against the background of inhibition of the activity of the renin-angiotensin system. If you need to increase blood pressure, it retains sodium in the body, water, forcing blood vessels to shrink under the influence of a large amount of water inside them. According to T.G. Efimova, with the administration of vitamin D4 (from 2 25 to 000 100 international units) every 000 to rabbits over 100 days, the blood pressure level in experimental animals increased by 30-100% depending on the initial value. However, prolonged addition of compounds in toxic doses contributed to changes in the fundus: tortuous vessels, blurred borders of the optic nerve, narrow arteries. Vitamin D2 contributes to the rapid healing of heart tissue after oxidative stress, a heart attack.
- Regulates blood sugar and insulin activity. The lack of ergocalciferol in the human body is a signal indicating an increased risk of diabetes of the 2 type. D2 deficiency increases the production of parathyroid hormone, which leads to the accumulation of large amounts of calcium in the cells. The excess nutrient causes overproduction of the hormone that reduces the effectiveness of insulin – cortisol. In addition, a significant accumulation of calcium in muscle cells, fat can inhibit the formation of GLUT-4, a carrier protein, which is responsible for transferring sugar from the blood to the tissues. Thus, lack of ergocalciferol in the body causes a reduced formation of glucose transporter, as a result, insulin and violation of the course of exchange reactions.
- It prevents the growth of malignant cells and has a prophylactic effect on the development of oncology of the colon, rectum, bladder, prostate, ovaries, and mammary gland. In addition, it is used in the treatment of leukemia, the brain.
- Reduces peeling of the skin, prevents scaling. Due to this property, vitamin D2 is effectively used to alleviate the course of dermatological diseases, such as psoriasis. In this regard, for the prevention of the disease the patient is recommended to stay longer in the sun (for 2 hours). During this period, the production of compounds in the layers of the epidermis.
- It regulates the synthesis of thyrotropin, glucocorticoids, prolactin, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, gastrin, insulin, thyroid, parathyroid gland, pituitary adrenal glands. “Controls” the metabolic processes in the body: mineral, lipid, protein. In case of D-vitamin deficiency, the parathyroid gland increases in weight and weight, however, when a large dose of ergocalciferol is administered to the body (more than 50 micrograms – 2000 international units) its size decreases to normal. In addition, vitamin D2 increases the production of thyroid-stimulating hormone pituitary, which increases the work of the thyroid gland, increasing the basal metabolic rate.
Despite the fact that the compound is of great value to the human body, the administration of a substance in high doses (250 micrograms – 10 000 international units) increases aortic lipoidosis, the level of alimentary hypercholesterolemia and creates favorable conditions for the development of cholesterol atherosclerosis.
Daily intake of vitamin D2
It is known that vitamin D2 is synthesized in the skin under the influence of direct sunlight. However, it is erroneous to claim that short-term ultraviolet irradiation of the limbs or face can satisfy the organism’s daily need for a beneficial compound. Today, scientists have proved that if a human body is exposed to natural insolation for two hours, the level of ergocalciferol in the body rises by 20 – 35%. At the same time, in a day the indicator returns to the initial mark. Therefore, in the summer, the body’s availability of antirachitic factor is slightly higher than in winter (by 30%), but not sufficient to replenish the daily value of this vitamin.
According to the mechanism of action, D2 is an antagonist of parathyroid parathyroid hormone. Ergocalciferol is absorbed from the digestive tract in the small intestine (distal section). The degree of assimilation of the substance depends on the amount of nutrient in the body and varies from 60 to 90%. Absorption of the compound enhances bile. Vitamin D2 is transformed into active metabolites in the liver, kidneys, and is excreted through the intestines. At the same time, the longest ergocalciferol is stored in the connective tissue (adipose).
The physiological activity of D2 preparations is indicated in international units (ME / IU). The biological equivalent of ergocalciferol: 1 ME – 0,025 micrograms.
Today, according to WHO recommendations, the daily dosage of D2 is as follows:
- for infants and babies up to one year – 350 international units (8,5 micrograms);
- for babies up to 5 years – 400 (10);
- for children from 5 to 13 years – 100 (2,5);
- for adults and adolescents – 300 (7,5);
- for people older than 60 years (to improve metabolism and prevent bone fragility) – 550 (14);
- for pregnant and lactating – 400 (10).
The list contains optimal norms for daily consumption of ergocalciferol, which replenish nutrient reserves in the body, preventing the development of hypervitaminosis. The safe, maximum allowable dose of D2 is 600 international units (15 micrograms) per day.
For better absorption, the compound is combined with the use of calcium. In this case, it is important to consider that a lack of iron, vitamins A, C, B weaken the effect of ergocalciferol.
Instructions for use
To prevent rickets in infants and newborns, ergocalciferol is important to take during pregnancy (at 30 – 32 week) and lactation.
In both cases, the nutrient is consumed in fractional portions of 100 international units 4 once a day (daily rate – 400 – 500). The expectant mothers are prescribed vitamin 6 weeks before delivery, and lactating women – from the first days of lactation to the beginning of D2 – therapy for the baby. In the summer months, the intake of the substance is canceled.
For premature babies, formula-fed infants and twins, anti-tart vitamin is administered from the 2 week of life at the dosage of 800 – 1000 international units per day. For these children, the daily rate of vitamin is calculated taking into account the amount of nutrient contained in the food. At the same time, the exchange rate of the substance ranges from 300 000 to 700 000 international units. This method of prevention of rickets (“fractional doses”) is used in 80% of cases, due to its high efficiency.
However, for certain categories of children (with prematurity, living in the northern regions, difficult living conditions or the presence of intercurrent diseases), it is advisable to prevent rickets using the “vitamin tremors” method. For this, 1 times in 7 days take 50 000 international units of ergocalciferol for 6 – 8 weeks. If necessary, the daily dosage is increased to 10 000 – 15 000. The duration of the “compacted” method is 20 days. It is important to combine large doses of vitamin D2 with beta-carotene (10 000 – 15 000 international units per day), organic vitamin C (3 grams per day), thiamine (300 – 700 grams per day) and phosphates.
Children at risk of developing rickets, 100 days after the end of therapy, it is advisable to repeat anti-relapse treatment with ergocalciferol (2 000 – 5 000 international units for 3 – 4 weeks). In areas with a long winter, supportive prophylaxis is used until the 3 age.
Vitamin D2 is used in a “shock” way (in an outpatient clinic) to correct severe forms of acute rickets against the background of concomitant pneumonia. At the same time course dosage is 600 000 – 800 000 ME (3 – 6 days).
Categories of people needing increased admission D2
Increasing the daily dose of nutrient is allowed only after consulting a doctor, in cases where there is an increased need for a beneficial compound.
Consider which ones.
- Bedside patients who are not in the fresh air.
- People living in northern latitudes with polar night or short daylight hours.
- Pregnant women, nursing moms.
- Patients with problems of the gallbladder, kidneys, intestines, liver (due to inadequate absorption of the joint), teeth.
- People living in regions where the atmosphere is heavily polluted.
- Employees who are on duty at night.
- Full of people.
Normally, the content of vitamin D2 in the blood, depending on the age and physiological characteristics of the organism, ranges from 10 to 40 micrograms per liter. Reduced synthesis of compounds in retirees (2 times), dark-skinned people (tanned or Negroid race) and vegetarians due to insufficient intake of fats from food.
Lack of vitamin
There are 2 forms of hypovitaminosis: hereditary and acquired. In the first case, the failure appears as a result of a genetic malfunction and is accompanied by the development of rickets of type I or II. With the hereditary form of the disease, the patient has a defect in the renal enzyme, a1 hydroxylase, and with acquired, cellular calcitriol receptors. In addition, the general clinic of rickets is accompanied by muscle weakness, alopecia (hair loss), and the appearance of epidermal cysts.
Acquired hypovitaminosis occurs in the following cases:
- lack of insolation;
- food deficiency;
- diseases of the kidneys, liver, gastrointestinal tract (cholestasis, celiac disease).
In childhood (up to 2 years), the lack of vitamin D2 in the body leads to abnormal bone formation in a child. With this disease (rickets), the calcium received from food is not absorbed in the intestine, as a result there is an additional loss of the element with urine.
In addition, its concentration in the blood decreases, which disrupts bone mineralization and leads to osteomalacia.
Characteristic signs of D2 deficiency in children are:
- deformation of the chest, bones of the skull;
- slowing teething;
- curvature of the leg;
- overgrowing springs;
- pallor of the skin;
- irritability, tearfulness;
- sleep disturbance;
- loss of appetite, drastic weight loss;
- decreased visual acuity;
- burning sensation in the throat;
- slowing teething.
Characteristic symptoms of hypovitaminosis in adults are softening (rarefaction) of the lower extremities and bones of the spine, tooth decay (especially during pregnancy, after childbirth). In mature people, unlike children, D2 vitamin deficiency is extremely rare.
With a prolonged shortage of ergocalciferol, avitaminosis develops, which is a precursor of a serious disease, rickets.
The lack of ergocalciferol in the human body causes the development of the following disease states:
- ovarian, colon, prostate, breast cancer;
- seasonal depression;
- increased diabetes mellitus type 2.
Vitamin D2 is effectively used to treat dermatological diseases, in particular, psoriasis.
Remember, fullness impairs the digestibility of the compound, so obese people need an increased intake of nutrients into the body.
In children with rickets, during the study of blood serum proteins, dysproteinemia was noted, as well as a reduced amount of protein, indicating a protein metabolism dysfunction.
Considering the antagonism of vitamins A and D2 in case of rickets, at the same time taking multivitamin preparations containing the elements B3, B6, C, E, A is not advisable.
Primary signs of hypervitaminosis of ergocalciferol:
- dryness, peeling of the skin;
- muscle hypotonia;
- increased heart rate;
- abdominal cramps;
- expanding the boundaries of the heart;
- metallic taste in the mouth;
- weight loss;
- diarrhea or constipation;
- sore eyes;
- increased frequency, increase, urination disorders (pollakiuria, nocturia, polyuria);
- dysfunction of the kidneys, heart.
Secondary symptoms of D2 redundancy in the body:
- turbidity of urine (appearance in urine leukocyturia, proteinuria, hyaline cylinders;
- bone pain;
- high blood pressure;
- conjunctival hyperemia;
- mental change;
- photosensitivity of the eye;
In the case of chronic intoxication with ergocalciferol (when taken for 2 weeks from 20 000 international units of the compound per day for adults and from 2000 for children), the following is observed:
- cardiovascular, renal failure;
- calcification of soft tissues, lungs;
- growth impairment in adolescents;
- arterial hypertension.
To relieve the patient’s condition and eliminate the symptoms of D2 intoxication, you should immediately stop taking the drug, limit calcium intake, flush the stomach or induce vomiting, take laxatives, enrich the diet with foods that weaken the toxic effect of the compound with high content of vitamin A, C, B.
When hypercalcemia is used, hemo-, peritoneal dialysis, edetate.
A characteristic sign of an excess of ergocalciferol in the human body is the presence of protein in the urine and hyaline cylinders, leukocytes, erythrocytes, calcium salts in large quantities in the sediment.
Indications and contraindications
The use of ergocalciferol is justified in the following cases:
- to enhance immunity;
- slowing the formation of callus;
- with postmenopause;
- for the prevention of the development of malignant diseases, diabetes mellitus;
- lupus erythematosus;
- hypo-avitaminosis D2;
- osteomalacia, osteomyelitis;
- hemorrhagic diathesis;
- muscular dystrophy;
- osteoporosis, bone fractures;
- enterocolitis accompanied by osteoporosis;
- osteodystrophy of renal genesis;
- hypoparathyroidism, pseudohypoparathyroidism;
- mild burns;
- dermatitis with dry skin;
- tetany caused by dysfunction of the parathyroid glands;
- hypophosphatemia, hypocalcemia;
- enteritis with malabsorption syndrome, chronic gastritis with achlorhydria, pancreatitis with secretory insufficiency, peptic ulcer.
In addition, vitamin therapy is needed for addicted people and lactating women to prevent cracking of the nipples.
Contraindications to the use of ergocalciferol:
- renal osteodystrophy;
- excess calcium, phosphorus in the body;
- intolerance to vitamin D2;
- urolithiasis disease;
- active pulmonary tuberculosis;
- hypervitaminosis D;
With extreme caution, under the supervision of a physician, the compound should be used for heart failure, renal failure, women for 35 years during pregnancy, the elderly.
“Suppliers” of vitamin D2 in the body
The main food source of ergocalciferol is fish oil. An oil solution (15 milliliters) covers 200% of the recommended daily dose of calciferol (600 international units).
Table No. 1 “Foods Rich in Vitamin D2”
|The name of the source of ergocalciferol||D2 content per 100 product gram, international unit||D2 content per 100 gram product micrograms|
|Sea bass, seafood, halibut, herring||92||2,3|
Among plant sources, most calciferol contains parsley, nettle, horsetail, green dandelion leaf (up to 15 international units per 100 gram). However, sunlight remains the main synthesizer of vitamin D2 for the human body.
Despite the fact that dairy products contain ergocalciferol, they should be consumed with extreme caution, since the high level of phosphorus in these ingredients prevents the full absorption of nutrients.
Factors to keep the maximum amount of vitamin D2 in food:
- meat, fish, seafood before cooking is not soaked in water;
- when cooking products placed immediately in boiling water;
- defrost meat and fish slowly, then immediately cook;
- do not heat food more than once;
- bake foods in foil;
- Do not allow the cooking of vegetables.
Acceptance of synthetic vitamin D2 (tablets, solution in oil) is justified only in the case when it is not possible to compensate for the lack of a compound at the expense of food.
Today we can distinguish the following complexes containing the daily rate of ergocalciferol: vigantol, undevit, akvadetrim, calcium-D3.
Interaction with other substances
Keep an open jar of vitamin under a tightly closed lid, as oxygen and light destroy calciferol. In addition, before taking vitamin D2, you need to carefully study the mechanism of interaction of the compound with other substances.
Consider the compatibility of ergocalciferol and certain substances.
- Calcium-containing drugs and thiazide diuretics increase the toxicity of vitamin D2.
- The simultaneous intake of cardiac glycosides and ergocalciferol against the background of D2 hypervitaminosis leads to an increase in the action of the first substances.
- Iodine preparations oxidize the “skin” vitamin (when taken together).
- Hypolipidemic drugs (colestipol, colestiramine, statins) reduce the absorption of ergocalciferol from the digestive tract.
- Ultraviolet radiation converts the nutrient to a toxic compound (toxisterin).
- Anticonvulsant barbiturates (phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidone) reduce the concentration of vitamin D2 in the body.
- Taking antacid drugs (lowering the acidity) against the background of long-term D2 therapy leads to the accumulation of magnesium and aluminum salts in the body, as a result of which the risk of poisoning with these substances doubles (especially in the presence of severe renal failure).
- Glucocorticosteroid drugs, anti-tuberculosis drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin), pamidronic and etidronic acid metabolites (xidiphon), gallium nitrate compounds, antiepileptic drugs and peptide hormones (calcitonin) reduce the pharmacological properties of vitamin D2.
- Fat-soluble nutrient increases the absorption of phosphorus-containing drugs in the intestine.
- Beta-carotene, tocopherol, calcium ascorbate, thiamine, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, riboflavin weaken the toxic effect of ergocalciferol.
- Synthetic laxatives disrupt the body’s vitamin D2 metabolism.
- “Sunny” nutrient increases the bioavailability of magnesium.
- Antibiotics inhibit nutrient absorption in the digestive tract.
Proper storage and well-designed scheme for taking vitamin D2 – the key to achieving maximum efficiency from nutrient consumption.
Ergocalciferol is used for the prevention and treatment of various functional disorders. At the same time, the dosage of the substance is selected on the basis of the patient’s state of health and the severity of the pathology.
Medical use of vitamin D2
- Infectious diseases. Ergocalciferol is prescribed for tuberculous lupus of the mucous membranes, nose, skin and oral cavity. Pharmacological dosage (in stationary conditions) for adults – 100 000 international units per day, for children under 16 years – 25 000 – 75 000. If side effects occur, the daily portion of the nutrient is reduced to 50 000, doubling the duration of therapy. The duration of the course of treatment is 5 – 6 months. Vitamin D2 is used during or immediately after a meal, after having previously distributed the daily portion to 2 meal. This treatment regimen, in 65 – 70% of cases, helps to achieve a stable remission. Repeated D2 therapy, which should be carried out through 4 – 5 months after the first course of treatment, will help prevent a relapse of the disease. It is advisable to repeat these events at least 1 once a year for 2 – 3 years.
- Rheumatic pathologies. Vitamin D2 is used in the complex therapy of bone diseases. Indications for use: rickets, bone tuberculosis, hyperthyroidism and hypoparathyroidism with osteomalacia, osteodystrophy of renal origin, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthrosis of the knee joints. As a result, calcium – phosphorus metabolism slows down, provoking a violation of bone structure. To prevent these problems, elderly people are prescribed vitamin D3 in prophylactic dosage (2 international units). In the medical practice of orthopedic pathologies, 400 3 international vitamin units are used daily for 000 days. If necessary, after 45 months, therapy should be repeated.
- In pediatrics. Ergocalciferol is an effective agent for the prevention and treatment of rickets in prematurely born children. Infants (1-th stage of prematurity) to prevent D2 – hypovitaminosis, from the 10-day of life, 400 – 1000 international units of vitamin a day are prescribed. Therapy is used for two years, excluding the summer period. In case of prematurity of the 2 stage, calciferol is used daily in the dosage of 1000 – 2000 international units (except for summer). In the second year of life, the daily rate of the substance is reduced to the 400 – 1000 mark. However, due to the different sensitivity of babies to the vitamin, this treatment regimen can trigger hypervitaminosis. Therefore, the pediatrician selects the “correct” dosage of the nutrient individually, focusing on the health of the infant after the restoration of body weight. These recommendations are relevant for twins, twins and babies who are on artificial feeding. Preventive D2-therapy, it is advisable to apply in regions with prolonged winter (4 – 5 months) to 3 – 6 age of the child.
- Skin diseases. In dermatological practice, ergocalciferol is used in the form of external agents that reduce inflammatory processes in the dermis. Indications for use: dermatitis, skin cancer, psoriasis, diaper rash, 1 and 2 degree burns (including solar), diaper rash, photodermatosis, nipple cracks (during pregnancy and lactation), abrasions, scratches, atopic dermatitis, autoimmune skin diseases (vitiligo, scleroderma, cystic dermatoses, bullous pemphigoid, systemic lupus erythematosus), acne, rosacea. The vitamin solution is applied to clean skin 2 – 3 once a day for 5 – 14 days, depending on the dynamics of the pathology. Ergocalciferol increases the expression of antimicrobial protein (cathelicidin), which stimulates the innate immunity of the skin, as a result of which the regeneration of its epidermal barrier is accelerated. However, the mechanism of action of the nutrient on adaptive skin immunity is not fully understood. In view of this, local treatment is advisable to combine with oral administration of vitamin.
- Gastroenterological dysfunctions. Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and bone structure disorders in 80% of cases are accompanied by concomitant pathologies. The most common of them are functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract – Crohn’s disease, chronic gastritis with achlorhydria, radiation enteritis, Whipple pathology, chronic pancreatitis with secretory insufficiency, gastric ulcer, secondary duodenitis, chronic autoimmune hepatitis, alcoholic liver cirrhosis. In the presence of these diseases, the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins is impaired, resulting in dysfunction of the intestinal-hepatic metabolism of ergocalciferol. In view of this, the “skin” nutrient is taken additionally in the form of additives. The dosage and method of taking the substance are prescribed by the doctor, taking into account current diseases and the severity of the pathology.
Remember, drugs ergocalciferol is used only after attempts to normalize the level of calcium in the blood by adjusting the diet.
Vitamin D2 in therapeutic dosages is important to take exclusively under the supervision of the attending physician (due to the cumulative properties of the nutrient). Ignoring this recommendation leads to intoxication of the body.
Vitamin D2 and Rachitis
Considering the fact that vitamin D2 is “responsible” for the proper ontogenesis of the skeleton, teeth and bones of a growing organism, its deficiency, in infancy, can provoke the occurrence of a serious disease – rickets. Previously, due to widespread in London, the disease was called “English plague.” This is due to the fact that, due to its geographical location, foggy albion constantly absorbs the UV rays of the sun, which causes insufficient nutrient production in the skin of people.
Vitamin deficiency leads to disruption of the central nervous and neuromuscular systems, as well as impaired bone formation.
The most characteristic sign of rickets is a violation of the transformation of cartilage into bone. At the same time, the disease in 3,5 times reduces the content of salts of phosphorus, calcium in the bones. Namely, from 66,3% to 18,2%. As a result, the cartilage weight of the rickets increases: from 29,93% to 71,25%. This leads to thinning of the bone tissue, which gradually softens and lends itself to bending.
As a result, the limbs under the weight of the body are deformed, the head acquires impressive disproportionate sizes, the chest is bent, the ends of the tubular bones are not completely calcified, “rosaries” appear on the ribs, and “tubercles” appear on the skull.
Patients have an increase in heart size, an increase in plasma phosphatase activity, a decrease in blood pressure, hemoglobin in the blood, expansion of the right ventricle, impaired absorption of food, disruption of the digestive tract, vascular system, unstable stool, sweating, poor sleep, and increased irritability.
Children with rickets are more likely to be exposed to infectious diseases and lag behind in the development of their peers.
Ergocalciferol preparations produced in the form of supplements and complexes will help prevent orthopedic pathologies in babies. According to statistics, babies who are breastfed are less likely to have rickets than “artificials”. This phenomenon is explained by the high content of nutrient in mother’s milk and natural production in the skin. However, in the cold season, especially in the first year of a child’s life, it is important to compensate for the lack of sunlight with a vitamin supplement. This will help prevent bone calcification and impaired calcium-phosphorus metabolism associated with vitamin D2 deficiency.
The most sensitive to deficiency of vitamin D2 in the body – the wall of the small intestine, muscle and bone tissue. This is evidenced by numerous studies of physicians, in particular the experiment of E. V. Krapivina, Doctor of Biological Sciences, studying the relationship between calciferol deficiency in the body and the development of pathologies in birds. The professor empirically established the optimal dose of vitamin for chickens (in the first year of life) – 1 000 international units per 1 kilogram of feed, which in terms of children’s age (0 – 1 year) is 400 international units per day (taking into account the nutrient content in food ).
Remember, treatment of rickets is important to conduct against the background of a full balanced diet.
Scheme for taking ergocalciferol
- Dragee containing 500 international units of vitamin D2, in packs of 50 and 100 pieces.
- Tablets with a concentration of ergocalciferol – 400, 800 or 2400 international units. Issued in banks for 90 pieces.
- 1000 capsules for international units, in a blister for 120 pieces.
- Oil solution of ergocalciferol (0,0625%), with 25 000 concentration of international units of vitamin D2 in 1 milliliter. Released in tubes of 10 milliliters.
- Oil solution of vitamin D2 (0,125%). 1 milliliter suspension contains 44 000 – 60 000 international nutrient units (in a drop – 1700). Form release: bottles for 10, 20 and 30 milliliters.
- Ergocalciferol alcohol solution (0,5%). The concentration of the substance in 1 milliliter is 200 000 international units (in the drop is 3 500). They are made in tubes of 5 and 10 milliliters.
- Oily solution of ergocalciferol (0,5%). 1 milliliter emulsion contains 200 000 international units of vitamin D2. Release form – bottles for 10 milliliters.
1 milliliter of oil suspension contains 29 – 30 drops of ergocalciferol, and 1 milliliter of alcohol solution contains 50 – 60 drops.
Analogs: ergocalciferol – Rusfar (Russia), vegan vitamin D (Deva, USA), vitamin D (Now Foods, USA), vitamin D (Nature’s Plus, New York).
For the purchase of vitamin D2, a prescription is not required, since the drug is freely available to buyers. However, it is important to discuss the feasibility of taking this substance with your doctor.
Feature of application
Vitamin D2, with the “correct” regimen, will help restore calcium and phosphorus metabolism, normalize the reactions of lipid peroxidation, eliminate metabolic acidosis and hypokalemia. However, to get the maximum benefit from nutrient, it is important to know the details of its use.
- Follow the dosage recommended by your doctor.
- Ergocalciferol preparations are stored in a dry, dark place at a temperature of 8 – 10 degrees Celsius. Failure to comply with the storage conditions threatens to inactivate the vitamin and turn it into a toxic toxin.
- Prolonged reception of “skin” substance involves regular monitoring of the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in the urine and blood.
- For babies up to 3 – x years, it is preferable to use an aqueous solution of vitamin D2, since it is better absorbed in the body of the baby. At the same time, 1 a drop of functional fluid should be diluted in 15 milliliters of water, the resulting solution should be given to the child during a meal.
- “Shock doses” (from 100 000 international units) of ergocalciferol should be taken in short courses, since an excessive concentration of nutrients in the blood causes hypervitaminosis.
- For newborns, the optimal time for taking a vitamin is the first half of the day.
- Ergocalciferol is prescribed with caution to patients with immobilization, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, because the nutrient can increase the phosphorus-calcium dysfunction in the body. In this case, the possibility of using the drug should be discussed with an endocrinologist or nutritionist.
- Against the background of receiving ergocalciferol, it is important to exclude irradiation with a quartz lamp.
- For mothers in labor (older than 35 years), vitamin D2 is important to take only as directed by a physician, since an overdose can lead to mental retardation of the fetus and suppression of its parathyroid function.
- If the child is predisposed to early overgrowth of fontanel on the background of the small size of the anterior crown, you should consult with the pediatrician about the feasibility of nutrient use.
These precautions will help to correctly draw up a scheme for taking nutrients and avoid the toxic effects of the substance on the body.
Thus, vitamin D2 is the best way to prevent abnormal skeletal development, insufficient bone mineralization in children and to treat hypovitaminosis, avitaminosis caused by a deficiency of D-compound in the human body.
Remember, even with the daily norm of ergocalciferol, a full metabolism of the nutrient is not possible with tocopherols and tocotrienols (vitamin E) deficiency.