Cholecalciferol or D3 is a fat-soluble substance formed in the skin of 7 – dehydrocholesterol under the action of ultraviolet rays, which combines with vitamin D-binding protein and is subsequently transported to the liver and kidneys through the blood.
The compound structure formula is C27H44O.
Cholecalciferol is a white crystalline powder, easily oxidized, low stability to light, soluble in vegetable oils, chloroform, alcohol, ether, insoluble in water. Melting point reaches 83 degrees, boiling point – 496,4.
Vitamin D3 is a unique nutrient that acts as a hormonal compound. Active substances, in particular, calcitriol, are formed from cholecalciferol. The compound stimulates the absorption of calcium, phosphorus in the small intestine, enhances their reabsorption in the renal tubules.
Consider a cholecalciferol prescription in Latin, which requires D3, what it contains, indications, contraindications for use, symptoms of lack and hypervitaminosis.
- 1 The value of vitamin D3 for the body
- 2 Daily need
- 3 Vitamin D3 for newborns
- 4 Preparations for babies
- 5 Vitamin D3 Hypovitaminosis
- 6 Hypercalcemia and hypervitaminosis
- 7 Indications and contraindications
- 8 On the “guard” of skin immunity
- 9 D3 –therapy for postmenopausal osteoporosis
- 10 Sources of vitamin D3
- 11 Own “sunny” vitamin
- 12 Differences between D2 and D3 vitamins
- 13 Liquid forms of cholecalciferol release
The value of vitamin D3 for the body
The main task of cholecalciferol is to ensure the growth of bone tissue. Inadequate intake of vitamin (especially in the children’s body) contributes to the development of severe disease – rickets, which often leads to irreversible changes, namely, deformation of bone structures.
Treatment depends on the nature, severity of the disease and is based on the D-vitamin therapy.
After entering the body, cholecalciferol is absorbed in the small intestine, providing the optimum level of phosphorus, calcium directly in the blood plasma. Thus, with the regular intake of a vitamin compound with food and the production of a substance by the skin cells, joints, bones, and cartilage tissue are strengthened.
The hormone is 1,25-dioxycholecalciferol, which is the product of the breakdown of D3. The compound accumulates in the muscle fibers, kidneys. After entering the intestine, it stimulates the production of protein, necessary for the transport of calcium to the teeth, bones.
Other beneficial properties of cholecalciferol:
- improves erection and potency in men, thyroid activity, concentration of attention;
- increases muscle elasticity, endurance and permeability of the mitochondrial membranes of the intestinal epithelium;
- strengthens the immune system;
- participates in the synthesis of insulin;
- stimulates the production of collagen;
- burns fatty tissue, contributing to weight loss;
- prevents heart disease;
- prevents the formation of cholesterol plaques;
- strengthens the processes of ossification, hair growth;
- improves the condition of the skin by maintaining a normal metabolism in the epithelium cells;
- prevents the appearance of cancer;
- regulates blood clotting.
Drugs containing vitamin D3 are recommended for use by children from birth (infants) for proper bone formation, as well as people living in adverse climatic conditions (polluted regions, cities with a short daylight hours).
Daily dosage of cholecalciferol is:
- for infants and babies up to 1, 400 international units (10 micrograms);
- for children from 1 to 10 years – 600 international units (15 micrograms);
- for teenagers up to 18 years, as well as for adults, pregnant women, nursing – 650 international units (16,25 micrograms);
- for seniors (65 years) – 800 international units (20 micrograms).
Till what age to accept and how to give vitamin D3?
To build and upgrade bone tissue, cholecalciferol in the human body is needed at any age. To fully cover daily nutrient requirements, it is important to spend at least 90 minutes in the sun every day with bare areas of the body (arms, legs, back), eat foods that contain a beneficial compound (usually of animal origin), or take active supplements food.
To assimilate a synthetic substance, when using a D3-containing drug, it is important to eat a fatty product at the same time (for example, three grams of butter or five milliliters of vegetable oil).
The body’s need for vitamin D3 is affected by the geography of your residence: the closer to the north, the more cholecalciferol is needed. Thus, from the thirty-seventh parallel, during the winter period, a person practically does not receive a useful compound from natural sunlight.
In addition, it is important to remember that people with dark skin synthesize a vitamin worse, and as a result, they need to live closer to the equator to fill their daily needs.
According to research scientists, sunscreens prevent the full production of nutrient in the upper layers of the epithelium. A tool labeled SPF8, and does block the production of vitamin in the skin.
For diagnostic purposes, the content of cholecalciferol in the body, as a rule, is determined together with ergocalciferol and their serum produced. The total concentration of compounds normally ranges from one to two nanograms per milliliter.
Vitamin D3 for newborns
Cholecalciferol is a “critically necessary” element for newborn babies, since it is involved in the metabolism of phosphorus and calcium, the main components for building cartilage and bone tissue. A lack of vitamin D3 in childhood leads to softening of the bones and a violation of the proper ontogenesis of the skeleton. In regions with low solar activity, the first symptoms of the disease are easy to miss, since curvature of the extremities is a sign of an already running form of the disorder.
Causes of bone anomalies in children:
- birth in the winter season;
- pregnancy with complications;
- taking anticonvulsants;
- metabolic disorders in the baby;
- lack of sunlight.
If the child is at risk of developing rickets, to prevent the appearance of bone abnormalities, you need to seek help from a pediatrician who, on the basis of the clinical picture, makes a prophylactic regimen of vitamin D3.
In this case, young mothers, it is important to clarify the symptoms, indicating a deficiency of cholecalciferol in an infant.
Signs of D3 – deficiency in infants:
- change in the shape of the chest;
- disturbed sleep;
- late closing fontanel;
- deformation of the head (the appearance of bumps and bumps);
- muscle weakness;
- nervous irritability;
- curvature of the lower limbs (dysplasia of the hip joints);
- atopic dermatitis (sometimes with signs of streptoderma).
Along with this, prolonged D3 – insufficiency in a child leads to a slowdown in teething and the formation of a malocclusion. When the first symptoms of pathologies are identified, treatment is immediately started, since untimely D3 therapy in infancy threatens with complications in adulthood: arthritis, scoliosis, bone curvature, flatfoot.
“Bone abnormalities”, in 80% of cases, occur in infants who were born from October to May. In view of this, pediatricians, without waiting for the appearance of signs of rickets, prescribe cholecalciferol preparations in the prophylactic dosage for babies already in the first year of life. The daily nutrient rate is selected individually, depending on the state of the infant, the presence of congenital abnormalities, the mother’s diet (for breastfed babies), the concentration of vitamin D3 in the lure and the child’s sensitivity to it.
How many months is cholecalciferol prescribed?
If the baby is born on time, vitamin D3 is taken from 3 – 4 weeks of life at a dosage of 500 international units (12,5 micrograms) per day (from October to May). For premature babies, the timing of D3 – therapy is shifted by 7 – 10 to the day of life, which helps speed up bone tissue ontogenesis. With a body mass deficiency, the daily portion of nutrient reaches 1000 – 1500 international units (25 – 37,5 micrograms).
Preparations for babies
The main sources of cholecalciferol for newborns are breast milk and sunlight. If the baby is bottle-fed, in his body, vitamin D3 comes along with milk formulas. However, the “adapted” formulations do not cover the infant’s daily nutrient requirement, since 80% of children are mixed-fed.
The balance of cholecalciferol in the body of a baby is determined by the pediatrician according to the state of the spring. In case of need, the doctor prescribes additional D3-therapy.
At the same time, the use of “vitamin” drugs is important with extreme caution, since an overdose threatens to demineralize bone tissue and impaired calcium metabolism in the intestine.
The optimal source of vitamin D3 for infants is a liquid solution (aqueous or oily). The first type, due to the hypoallergenic formula and rapid absorption in the intestine, is used for “weak” newborns with abnormalities. At the same time, the oil suspensions of the “new generation” are not inferior in efficiency to the previous additives. What composition is better depends on the specific situation, the characteristics of the child’s body.
Consider the popular vitamin D3 supplements:
- Videin is an antirachitic mixture of cholecalciferol with casein based on an oil suspension. Release form – tablets. One capsule contains 500, 1000, 5000 and 10000 international units of vitamin D3. For infants, the tablet is pulverized and dissolved in milk. The drug is taken after meals (for 10 – 15 minutes) at the same time once a day.
- Akvadetrim – an aqueous solution of cholecalciferol. The drug is prescribed with 4 weeks of life, if the doctor has not moved the terms of reception. The concentration of the active substance in the 1 drop is 500 international units, which is the daily norm for well-developing children. Premature babies are prescribed 2 – 3 solution drops per day. The medicine is dissolved in pure 5 in milliliters of pure water before intake. Approach is contraindicated in infants with a predisposition to early overgrowth of a spring on the background of the small size of the front temech.
- Vigantol – oil solution of vitamin D3. This tool is prescribed with 2 –th week of life. 1 Liquid Drop contains 667 international units of cholecalciferol.
- Minisan Produced in the form of an oil suspension (for babies) and chewable tablets (for children from three years). A drop of liquid contains 100 international units of vitamin D3, and dragee contains 400.
- Vitamin D3 Devisol – oil-based solution. The recommended daily dosage of the substance is 5 drops, which in total amounts to 400 international units of cholecalciferol. This composition is not used in the presence of allergies or diathesis in crumbs.
- D3 Wit Baby. The release form of the drug – capsules. Dragee contains 200 international vitamin D3 units. The product is used for the prevention and treatment of bone pathologies in children from birth to 3 years. At the same time, the capsular type of remedy causes a logical question for moms: how to eat vitamin? To extract nutrient from the pack, turn the special tip on the blister and tear it off. Then the contents of the capsule are squeezed into the baby’s mouth or mixed with breast milk. At the same time, it is important to ensure that the baby does not swallow pills.
If there is a shortage of other vitamins and microelements in infants on the background of D3 deficiency, then as a source of cholecalciferol, it is advisable to use multivitamin complexes.
Let’s consider some of them:
- Watering Baby. Drops the child prescribed in the dosage of 1 milliliter per day (400 international units of vitamin D3) directly during meals.
- Vidaylin – M. Produced in the form of a syrup for oral administration. 5 milliliters of the solution contains 400 international units of cholecalciferol.
- Multi – Tabs Baby. The daily dose for the baby is 1 milliliter, which corresponds to 400 international units of vitamin D3.
Remember, the expediency of taking a multivitamin is important to discuss with a pediatrician.
Vitamin D3 Hypovitaminosis
Causes of cholecalciferol deficiency in humans:
- lack of sunlight;
- a metabolic disorder of a vitamin caused by a liver or kidney disease;
- lack of vitamin D3 compounds in the diet;
- poor absorption of substances in the intestines.
The most serious consequences of a lack of calciferol in the body are: a decrease in the content of phosphorus, calcium in the blood and a softening of the bone tissue. As a result, people experiencing a deficiency of the solar vitamin are more prone to fractures. In addition, the development of allergic conditions and frequent respiratory diseases are today associated with subclinical deficiency of cholecalciferol.
Characteristic signs of vitamin D3 deficiency in humans:
- sweating of the head;
- burning in the mouth;
- decrease in the level of minerals in the bones.
In addition to identifying the primary signs of hypovitaminosis, before embarking on drug therapy, you must pass a blood test to determine the content of D3 in the body.
Table No. 1 “Reference values of cholecalciferol in the blood”
|25-OH concentration of vitamin D3, nanogram per milliliter||Conclusion|
|less 5||Extremely severe vitamin deficiencies|
|5 – 10||Severe shortage|
|10 – 20||Moderate failure|
|20 – 30||Close to optimal intake of vitamin D3|
|30 – 50||Normal value|
|50 – 70||Intake of vitamin D3 over the upper limit of normal|
|70 – 150||Overdose but not toxic|
The lack of cholecalciferol in the body for a long time creates favorable conditions for the development of the following disease states:
- bronchial asthma;
- rheumatoid arthritis;
- weak immunity;
Remember that in order to not have to cure diseases associated with insufficient intake of vitamin in the body, you should not allow the development of D-hypovitaminosis. If the disease has failed to prevent, you should consult a doctor.
Please note: the illiterate and irrational use of the compound in high doses can lead to intoxication of the body and the development of serious consequences.
Self-treatment is dangerous for your health!
Hypercalcemia and hypervitaminosis
With prolonged vitamin “cholecalciferol” therapy, hypercalcemia often occurs. As a rule, this condition occurs in the following cases: with the simultaneous excessive consumption of foods containing large amounts of calcium (dairy products) or as a result of the administration of high doses of D3 for 2 – 3 months or more, which leads to the accumulation of 25 (OH) D3 in serum. In this case, the concentration of the compound in the blood exceeds the norm by 5 – 10 times. After stopping cholecalciferol, a high level of 25 (OH) D3, due to accumulation in adipose and muscle tissues, lasts up to 90 days.
Hypercalcemia and overdose with vitamin D3 occur with prolonged use of such active drugs: dihydrotachisterol, alfacalcidol, calcifediol, calcitriol.
Symptoms of hypervitaminosis:
- lack of appetite;
- intestinal colic;
- breathing problems;
- pain in muscles, joints;
- slow pulse;
- muscle spasms;
- sharp increase in pressure;
- feverish state.
To eliminate the excess of cholecalciferol in the body, first of all, the intake of D – containing preparations is canceled and the consumption of foods rich in calcium is limited. Then, with severe hypercalcemia, glucocorticoids are found, in particular, prednisone. How to take the substance? The drug is used for 14-21 days 50 milligrams per day. With the systematic admission, it has glucocorticoid, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic effects. Corticosteroids block the effect of D3 on the bones, small intestine.
In no case should the onset of symptoms of intoxication be ignored, otherwise overdosing of the compound in the body can lead to the development of the following complications:
- calcification of soft tissues, vessels, heart valves;
- the deposition of calcium salts in the heart, kidneys, intestines;
Indications and contraindications
Increased dosage of cholecalciferol is prescribed in the treatment of the following diseases:
- climatic period in women;
- pancreatitis at the stage of exacerbation;
- convulsive syndrome;
- tropical sprue;
- chronic gastritis;
- loss of calcium in the teeth, bone tissue;
- malabsorption syndrome;
- hypophosphatemia, hypocalcemia;
- mechanical jaundice;
- liver failure;
- gluteic enteropathy;
- Crohn’s disease;
- persistent diarrhea.
In addition, the need for vitamin D3 increases with hypocalcemia, hypo-and vitamin deficiency, unbalanced diet (syroedenie, vegetarianism), insufficient insolation, alcoholism, after surgery, during pregnancy, lactation.
Cholecalciferol is contraindicated in patients with calcium nephrolourithiasis, active pulmonary tuberculosis, hypersensitivity to the drug, with prolonged immobilization, hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, renal osteodystrophy with hyperphosphatemia.
On the “guard” of skin immunity
The skin is the first line of defense against viruses, bacteria and pathogens. At the same time, 95% of the dermis is constituted by protective cells – keratinocytes, participating in immune processes. These organoids have special “sensors” to respond to changes in the microbial flora and to receive various signals from the outside. After a skin lesion, keratinocytes surrounding the wound increase the genetic coding of the cells in order to create peptides and antimicrobial receptors.
Vitamin D3 potentiates the ability of these “agents” to recognize pathogenic microorganisms, resulting in the formation of a protective clot. At the same time, keratinocytes and cholecalciferol create an almost impassable barrier for infection inside the skin. However, the full course of such reactions is possible only if there is a sufficient amount of vitamin D3 in the body.
Consider the mechanism of activation of cholecalciferol.
Natural nutrient production occurs in the deepest layers of the skin: spine-shaped (stratum spinosum) and germinal (stratum basale) containing the maximum concentration of the 7 compound – dehydrocholesterol. This substance, absorbing ultraviolet radiation (type B), modifies the structure, as a result of which prohormone – vitamin D3 is synthesized. After this, cholecalciferol is transported to the liver to form the next form of vitamin D – calcidiol. When the microbial flora on the skin changes, the “sensors” transmit danger signals to the brain, as a result of which the component is transported from the liver to the kidneys, where it is converted to the active form, calcitriol.
After the final conversion, the “sunny” vitamin again enters the bloodstream, from where, using transport proteins, it is delivered to the organs. In regions with long winters, the natural production of prohormone slows down, provoking the development of D3 hypovitaminosis, and as a result, weakening of innate skin immunity. Therefore, to maintain the barrier function of the dermis, it is advisable to take medicinal analogues of cholecalciferol. One of these drugs is topical calcipotriol (calcipotriene), which modulates the differentiation and proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes. This property of the substance is used to normalize inflammatory processes in the skin affected by psoriasis and vitiligo.
Vitamin D3, in addition to protecting the dermis, is involved in the growth, regulation and replacement of dead skin cells. If there is a deficiency of this prohormone in the human body, the structure of epidermal cells changes. At the same time, the outer layers of the skin lose their turgor, elasticity and strength, and dryness and parchment appear on its individual parts. In view of this, cholecalciferol is used in cosmetology as an external agent for strengthening and growing hair.
Vitamin D3, along with oral administration, is added to balms, shampoos and hair serums.
Mask for thick hair with vitamin D3
- olive oil – 5 milliliters;
- burdock oil – 5 milliliters;
- vitamin D3 (alfacalcidol) – 5 – 6 drops (half ampoule).
These components are thoroughly mixed and applied to the root zone for 30 minutes. This mask eliminates excessive dryness of the skin, strengthens the hair follicles and adds a shine to the dim head of hair. To obtain a lasting effect, 1 is applied once a week.
Remember, it is important for each person to monitor the intake of vitamin D3 into the body, because it activates more than 2 000 genes, which is 10% of the human genotype.
D3 –therapy for postmenopausal osteoporosis
Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a disease characterized by increased bone fragility against the background of ovarian function extinction. In women during menopause, the natural production of estrogens decreases, as a result of which the production of cytokines (proteins of the acute inflammation phase) increases and the activity of osteoclasts (resorbable cartilage cells) increases. Such reactions lead to a breakdown of the “calciciferol” metabolism of the kidneys, intense bone loss, and as a result, the development of osteoporosis.
This pathology is manifested by an imbalance of interrelated processes of repair and bone resorption. In addition, the pathogenesis of the disease is affected by age-related vitamin deficiency in the body and a decrease in affinity (strength of molecular bonds) of D-receptors to the “solar” nutrient in target organs. As a result of these reactions, the concentration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the blood increases, muscle strength decreases, the risk of traumatic falls and fractures of the extremities increases.
To prevent osteoporotic changes and preserve bone mineralization, people of mature age (from 50 years old) are prescribed prophylactic D3 therapy. In this case, it is advisable to use the prodrug form of cholecalciferol – alfacalcidol. This substance, when ingested, is converted into an active metabolite of vitamin D3 – calcitriol. Prohormone, bypassing endogenous regulation (without the participation of a renal enzyme), rapidly accumulates in the blood serum, as a result of which there is an improvement in the adsorption of phosphorus and calcium in the small intestine. If necessary, calcitriol and parathyroid hormone mobilize calcium ions from bone tissue and regulate its reabsorption in the kidneys.
Alfacalcidol treatment is used, first of all, as replacement therapy to eliminate D – deficient conditions of the body. At the same time, the ability of a vitamin to regulate metabolic processes in muscle tissue, the parathyroid gland, the brain and the immune system determines its therapeutic area of use as a hormonal agent.
Consider a detailed description of this drug.
Instructions for use of alfacalcidol
Alfacalcidol stimulates the absorption of phosphorus and calcium in the intestine, activates bone metabolism, suppresses the parathyroid hyperfunction, and potentiates the reabsorption of “building” substances in the kidneys.
Composition: one tablet (capsule) contains 0,25, 0,5 or 1 micrograms of alfacalcidol, and in 1 a milliliter of solution – 0,5 micrograms.
Indications for use: osteoporosis (postmenopausal, juvenile, involutional), steroid osteopathies, renal tubular acidosis, D – resistant rickets, postoperative hyperparathyroid osteodystrophy, conditions requiring correction – calcium – phosphorus metabolism, de Toni Fibre disease holcalciferol (tetany, hypocalcemia), chronic renal failure, hypofunction of the parathyroid gland.
In addition, the drug is used to prevent renal osteodystrophy (with hemodialysis) and in rehabilitation therapy after kidney transplantation.
For the prevention of osteoporosis (senile, postmenopausal, steroid), 0,5 – 1 micrograms of the vitamin are used daily for 2 – 12 months.
With osteomalacia and D – deficient rickets caused by exogenous insufficiency of cholecalciferol, prolonged anticonvulsant therapy or diseases of the digestive system, alfacalcidol is prescribed in the dosage of 1 – 3 micrograms per day.
Daily portion of vitamin D3 for patients suffering from hypoparathyroidism or Fanconi syndrome – 2 – 6 micrograms. With osteodystrophy, a daily dose of medicine – 0,07 – 2 micrograms. Children with rickets-like diseases are prescribed from 0,5 to 3 micrograms of the drug per day, depending on the body weight and age of the baby. For the treatment of osteomalacia and hypophosphatemic rickets, the daily dose of the drug is increased to 4 – 20 micrograms (under the supervision of a doctor).
Intensive D3 therapy is administered on 10 days with interrupted 2 weeks.
It is advisable to start taking alfacalcidol with the minimum portions, controlling the level of calcium in the urine and blood (once a week). With a positive tolerability of the substance, the daily rate is increased by 0,25 – 0,5 micrograms to stabilize the biochemical parameters, continuing to monitor the concentration of calcium in the blood plasma (once in 3 – 5 weeks).
For children weighing up to 20 a kilogram of a daily dose of vitamin 0,01 – 0,05 micrograms per kilogram of child weight.
In renal osteodystrophy, the therapeutic dosage ranges from 0,04 to 0,08 micrograms per kilogram of body weight.
If there are signs of overdose while taking Alfacalcidol, the daily dosage of the drug is reduced until the symptoms of hypovitaminosis are eliminated.
Sources of vitamin D3
Consider what products contain cholecalciferol.
- Fish and products from it. The greatest amount of vitamin compound is in fish oil. To meet the daily needs of an adult (10 micrograms), you need to drink eight drops of this substance daily. Most fish oil is found in herring, sardine – 1,5 – 2,5 grams per 100 grams of product, salmon – 1,3 – 2,2, mackerel – 1,2 – 2,0, halibut – 0,8 – 1,4, tuna – 0,3 – 1,3 g; codfish – 0,2 – 0,3. In 5 milligrams of cod liver, 125 grams of black caviar, 200 grams of red caviar, 150 grams of sprat in oil, 50 grams of sprat in oil, 850 grams of blue whiting fillet, the daily rate of cholecalciferous fat was added. acids and vitamin A, providing a healing, strengthening effect on the human body. The disadvantage of products of this category include: fat content of products, high cholesterol, which poses a potential danger for the development of obesity, the occurrence of problems with blood vessels.
- Meat and offal. The tenderloin contains a small amount of beneficial compound (up to 0,2 micrograms per 100 grams of product), while in beef liver this figure rises to 1,2, in a sheep liver to 1, in sheep kidneys to 0,5. These products are not only rich in vitamin D3, but also in nutrients A, B, K. However, it is important to remember that consuming only meat and offal, fully satisfying the body’s need for cholecalciferol is extremely problematic.
- Chicken eggs. One yolk contains 2 microgram of cholecalciferol. D3 is also found in goose, quail, and turkey eggs, but in very small quantities.
- Milk products. 100 grams of ghee contains 1,8 micrograms of nutrient (560 grams are required to fill daily needs), creamy – 1,5 micrograms (670 grams), Dutch and Swiss cheese – 1 micrograms (1000 grams) .In 100 grams / milliliters, you can get Kefir cholecalciferol levels range from 0,05 to 0,1 micrograms. Despite the fact that the content of the vitamin compound in these products is small, by consuming a large amount of lactic acid products, it is possible to half satisfy the need of an adult organism in the substance (5 micrograms).
- Mushrooms In the 100 grams grifola contains 63 microgram cholecalciferol (for “redemption” Daily Value D3 enough to eat daily 16 gram of product), chanterelles – 8,8 mcg (130 grams), morels – 6,3 micrograms (150 grams), oyster mushrooms – 2,6 mcg (400 grams) However, when buying it is important to take into account that the vitamin is produced in the fruit bodies of only those mushrooms that are grown in the sun. If chanterelles, champignons, oyster mushrooms developed on farms in “artificial” conditions, ergosterol does not turn into D3 in them, as a result, they do not compensate for the lack of nutrients in the body.
- Vegetable products (horsetail, nettle, alfalfa, parsley) – up to 0,01 micrograms of vitamin 100 grams.
Thus, the greatest amount of cholecalciferol is found in animal by-products (kidneys, liver) and in fatty sea fish – blue whiting, haddock, cod, salmon, and the smallest – in vegetables, berries, fruits, and greens.
Due to the fact that vitamin D3 is resistant to heat treatment, after cooking and frying foods rich in a beneficial compound, nutrient losses amount to 2 – 3%, which does not lead to a significant decrease in the substance in the finished dish.
Own “sunny” vitamin
When drafting a diet rich in vitamin D3, it is important to consider that the required amount of cholecalciferol for the human body is difficult to get exclusively from food. For example, it is not always possible to eat 850 grams of cod every day or 1000 grams of Swiss cheese. Therefore, remember, to cover daily needs, it is important to visit the sun more often, because the body is able to synthesize the compound in the skin itself.
Sports activities in the open air and a balanced diet – the perfect combination for the proper development and maintenance of bone, muscle tissue.
Consider what conditions should be observed so that the human body throughout the year does not experience a deficit of cholecalciferol, without being tied to the diet.
- Daily for 2 – 3 hours to walk outside.
- In late spring, in the summer, in the early autumn, the largest part of the skin should be kept open so that sunlight would penetrate unhindered to the upper layers of the epithelium.
- To temper, to carry out walks in the winter, when the body is most acutely deficient in vitamin compound.
Remember, D3 can accumulate in adipose tissue, liver, and be consumed during the cold season. From this, it follows that in order to have a supply of nutrients in the body for the next 3 – 6 months, it is enough to walk intensively daily in the summer on sunny days.
Differences between D2 and D3 vitamins
Consider the difference between ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol.
- Vitamin D2 is synthesized by mushrooms, plants. To provide the body with a useful compound, you should include fruits, vegetables, fresh juices, milk, and cereals in the daily menu. Unlike ergocalciferol, D3 the human body can produce independently under the influence of UV rays. In addition, nutrients contain animal products.
- Ergocalciferol regulates calcium-phosphorus metabolism, improving the absorption of trace elements, and contributes to their timely deposition in the bones. At the same time, cholecalciferol is involved in the transportation of minerals and affects the absorption of salts of phosphoric acid and calcium from the small intestine.
- After splitting D2 into several components, the excess compound has a negative effect on the functioning of the internal organs. During biochemical reactions, D3 is transformed into calcitriol, which opposes the development of cancer cells.
To saturate the body with ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol, experts recommend using natural vitamin sources – products of plant and animal origin. It is recommended to use additives and synthetic substances as a last resort, for example, in the treatment of diseases or long-term avitaminosis.
Drugs containing vitamins D2, D3 during storage for more than a year partially lose their effectiveness (at least 50%). When saving and using them, it is important to follow the manufacturer’s instructions.
Liquid forms of cholecalciferol release
Vitamin D3 is available in the following dosage forms:
- solution in oil for oral use;
- aqueous solution for oral administration;
- oil solution for injection.
Also, cholecalciferol is produced in pills, capsules in various dosages.
When administered orally after admission to the gastrointestinal tract, the compound is absorbed in the small intestine. An aqueous solution, unlike the oil, is absorbed much better. After the substance enters the lymphatic system, it enters the liver, and then into the blood, spreading throughout the body.
The form of release and the amount of vitamin intake per day prescribed by the doctor, depending on the severity of vitamin A and the presence of concomitant diseases.
Thus, cholecalciferol is a vital vitamin for the human body, which is involved in building bone tissue, affects the immune, cardiovascular systems, and also protects the body from the occurrence of skin diseases, diabetes, cancer.
Considering the fact that D3 enhances calcium absorption in the intestines, supplemental nutrient intake (with drugs) can trigger iron deficiency in the blood, bone marrow, liver, and spleen.