Vitamin U or methyl methionine sulfonium is a white powder with a yellowish tint, has a specific odor and has anti-atherosclerotic, anti-histamine properties. The compound was first discovered in 1949 by the American biologist Chini, in the study of cabbage juice. In the process of analysis, the scientist found that an unknown factor that is part of raw vegetables helps to heal a stomach ulcer. Thus, vitamin U was isolated, which was named after the English word “ulcus”, which means “ulcer”.
The vitamin substance is formed from the indispensable aliphatic sulfur-containing α-amino acid (methionine), serves as a donor of methyl groups in the biosynthesis of adrenaline, choline.
The main direction of action of the U-compound is the healing of the mucous membranes of the internal organs. Due to this property, the vitamin is called antiulcer factor.
The structural formula of S-methylmethionine is C5H11NO2S.
The compound decomposes in the light, readily soluble in water, hygroscopic, thermolabile. Insoluble in solvents, alcohol, inactivated by oxidation. When cooled, dried, the beneficial properties of the vitamin do not change (losses do not exceed 2%).
Consider the instructions for the use of nutrient, signs of hypo-and hypervitaminosis, which products contain, how it affects the course of pregnancy.
Action of vitamin u
Functions of methylmethionine in the human body.
- Recognizes, neutralizes and removes hazardous chemicals. One such compound is histamine. The substance is secreted in the process of inflammatory reactions in the body and increases the production of gastric juice, which leads to “swelling” of the walls of the digestive tract and the appearance of painful sensations. The ability of a nutrient to neutralize histamine improves the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract and reduces the severity of symptoms of the following allergic manifestations: food intoxication, accompanied by more frequent stools, hay fever – watery eyes and runny nose when inhaling pollen of flowers, asthma attacks, bronchial asthma.
- Heals ulcers, erosion on mucous membranes that occur on the organs of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Normalizes the level of acidity in the stomach, improves digestion. With insufficient secretion, vitamin U stimulates the production of hydrochloric fluid, with increased production it reduces aggressiveness, suppressing formation. In different sections of the gastrointestinal tract, the pH is not the same. In the esophagus, normal acidity reaches 6.0 – 7.0 units, in the lumen of the stomach on an empty stomach – 1.5 – 2.0, in the depth of the epithelial layer – 7.0, in the antrum varies from 1.3 to 7.4, in the bulb of the duodenum – 5.6 – 7.9, juice of the small intestine – 7.5, juice of the colon – 9.0. Thus, S-methylmethionine protects the gastric mucosa, maintaining a physiological pH level normal, which creates favorable conditions for the normal digestion of food without damaging the walls of the muscular organ.
- Restores skin structures. Due to this property, a vitamin-like compound is used in medicine for the treatment of chronic skin diseases (urticaria, dermatitis, psoriasis) and in cosmetology. Creams and masks containing methionine remove redness, stimulate the regeneration of the epidermis, reduce the appearance of capillaries, saturate the cells with moisture and oxygen. Vitamin U eliminates irregularities, improves skin elasticity, smoothes the tone of the face, relieves mimic wrinkles.
- Improves fat metabolism, blood circulation in the affected vessels of the heart, brain. In addition, the nutrient protects the liver from damage, prevents the development of atherosclerosis, the replacement of liver tissue with fat.
- Fights depression, removes from nervous conditions. Vitamin U is used when standard psychotropic drugs do not give a positive result. Methylmethionine affects the biosynthesis of adrenaline and controls the exchange of cholesterol in the body, which “regulates” the emotional state of a person.
- Contributes to the production of collagen, protecting tissue from the formation of ptosis, stretch marks, scars that appear as a result of rapid weight loss. Also, the compound reduces the load on the bladder and cleans the urine from ammonia in the process of intensive dropping extra pounds.
Vitamin U is recommended for pregnant women, as the compound relieves the symptoms of toxicosis, strengthens the hair, prevents the development of an infection of the urinary system. In addition, it is indicated for women using oral contraceptives and high estrogen drugs.
Due to the fact that methionine is involved in lipid metabolism and is an antioxidant, the compound is often included in sports supplements. Although the vitamin does not have a pronounced anabolic effect, it eliminates body fat from fat deposits, which is important for athletes who take care of their figure.
Hypo– and hypervitaminosis of S-methylmethionine
People who do not eat fresh vegetables for a long time in 90% experience U-deficiency symptoms.
- increase in gastric acidity, accompanied by damage to the mucous surfaces of the stomach, duodenum with the formation of wounds, erosion;
- exacerbation of inflammatory diseases of the digestive tract.
With a chronic lack of S-methylmethionine for more than 2 – 5 years, a person develops gastritis, ulcer.
Vitamin U hypervitaminosis – does not have a negative effect on the human body, since the nutrient is a water-soluble compound, with an excess of it is rapidly excreted in the urine.
The acidic environment in the stomach – the main condition for the absorption of vitamin. In case of violation of the secretion of hydrochloric acid, the absorbability of the substance decreases sharply (2 – 5 times) even when the nutrient is supplied in a daily amount.
Indications and contraindications
The anti-ulcer factor is recommended for treatment for the following disease states:
- chronic hepatitis;
- Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s;
- cirrhosis of the liver, Gilbert’s syndrome;
- stomach ulcers, colitis;
- diabetes mellitus;
- diaphragmatic hernia;
- neurosis, mental disorders;
- multiple sclerosis;
- chronic cholecystitis;
- gallstone disease;
- dystrophy caused by a lack of protein in the body after dysentery;
- nicotine addiction;
- wounds, injuries acquired as a result of sports training;
- premature aging of the skin and tissues.
Vitamin U is indicated for use by women to improve the condition of the hair, strengthen the nail plate, improve skin tone, facilitate the flow of premenstrual syndrome and relieve chronic fatigue.
Contraindications to the additional use of S-methylmethionine:
- severe hepatic or renal failure;
- hypersensitivity to the components of the drug;
- viral hepatitis;
- children up to 6 years;
- hepatic encephalopathy.
Rarely on the background of methionine intake, patients develop side effects. These include: nausea, vomiting, allergic rash on the skin, itching, unpleasant taste in the mouth and lowering blood pressure. Sometimes patients have tachycardia and confusion. These signs of overdose disappear after dose adjustment of compound use by the attending physician.
Given the fact that the human body does not produce methionine on its own, it is important to ensure the systematic supply of anti-ulcer substance from the outside.
A person’s need for vitamin U depends on age, gender, and ranges from 100 to 300 milligrams per day. In pregnancy, this figure is 200 milligrams per day, during intense sports activities – 250, and during the competition season (for bodybuilders) increases to 450.
Patients with digestive tract problems need higher doses of the beneficial compound. For this category of people, it is important to ensure the daily intake of 200 – 400 milligrams of methionine per day. Preferably, the daily intake of vitamin U enters the body in its natural form with vegetable food.
In medical practice, artificially synthesized Methylmethionine is used. The drug is available in tablets, capsules, powder, liquids (sprays). However, it should be borne in mind that the effectiveness of such a substance is 70% lower in relation to the natural nutrient that is part of the juice of vegetables.
Sources of Vitamin U
Where is the anti-ulcer factor?
The greatest amount of S-methylmethionine is concentrated in plant foods. A treasure trove of beneficial compound – asparagus. 100 grams of product contains up to 260 milligrams of nutrient.
The second place, in the amount of vitamin U in the composition, rightly belongs to the white cabbage. 100 grams of a product contains 85 milligrams of a substance.
Parsley, beets, sprouts of sprouted peas, cauliflower, and corn are moderately rich in methionine. The vitamin content in these products does not exceed 20 milligrams per 100 gram of ingredient.
Less than 1 milligram of nutrient per 100 gram of food is concentrated in potatoes, carrots, pumpkin, sweet pepper, spinach, green tea, bananas.
Vitamin U (raw milk, liver, egg yolk) is also found in animal products, but its amount does not exceed 0,05 milligrams per 100 gram of product.
Remember, the safety of the beneficial compound in vegetables, by-products, dairy products depends on the storage conditions and the correctness of cooking. When boiling ingredients for 10 minutes, only 4% methionine decomposes, however, if the heat treatment process is increased to 30 minutes, the substance loss reaches 13%, 60 minutes – 65%, 90 minutes – 100%.
Best of all, vitamin U is stored in boiled beets, so for people with digestive tract disorders it is helpful to include sugar vegetable salads in the daily menu.
Preventive and therapeutic use
Today, the therapeutic efficacy of using S-methylmethionine is at the stage of detailed study. The greatest amount of research was conducted by Cheney, who reported 200 patients recovering from a stomach ulcer, after consuming 1 a liter of fresh cabbage juice every day while taking antispasmodic agents such as belladonna, analgesics, sedatives and alkali. As a result of the experiment, the doctor discovered that a group of patients who systematically consumed anti-ulcer vitamin with vegetable food recovered twice as fast as the control one, which was subjected to “standard” therapy without supplementation of vitamin U.
It is believed that the best effect from the treatment with cabbage juice is observed among patients with normal, hypo- or anacid forms of peptic ulcer, spastic, infectious colitis, and hepatitis.
When achlorhydria vitamin improves the function of the gallbladder, small, large intestine and increases the acidity of gastric juice.
For the disappearance of dyspeptic phenomena and the normalization of gastric secretion, methylmethionine sulfonium chloride is prescribed 200 milligrams per day for 30 days. There is an opinion that the mechanism of the therapeutic effect of vitamin U is based on the fact that the energy-rich sulfonium group is a donor of free methyl compounds that are involved in anabolic processes. They, in turn, serve to increase the resistance and regeneration of the gastric mucosa, preventing the harmful effects of pepsin and hydrochloric acid.
Together with choline, folic acid, methionine is able to defeat the growth of low-grade tumors.
In diabetes, atherosclerosis, liver damage with chloroform, alcohol, arsenic drugs, 100 is prescribed in milligrams of the compound one hour before a meal of 3-4 once a day for 4 weeks.
The interaction of vitamin U and other drugs
- Antacids (drugs that bind hydrochloric acid in the stomach) reduce the absorption of methionine.
- Water- and fat-soluble vitamins, trace elements do not affect the absorption level of anti-ulcer factor.
- S-methylmethionine stimulates the development of RNA cells due to the effect of the compound on the metabolism of nucleic acids.
- Vitamin U is a donor of methyl groups in the synthesis of creatine and choline.
- Methionine in combination with group B vitamins, famotidine, sulfonium chloride enhances the action of nutrients and accelerates the healing of ulcers on the gastric mucosa.
- Nicotinic acid (B3), together with the U-compound, promotes the production of adrenaline.
- Methionine enhances the effect of furazolidone, lanatozida C, enhances the antianginal effect of nitroglycerin.
- Vitamin U, while taking nutrient and anti-parkinsonian drug Levodopa, reduces the effect of the latter.
- Methionine in combination with lipocaine accelerates phospholipid metabolism in the liver, preventing the formation of fat deposits in the gland.
Today there are no data on the interaction of the vitamin compound with ethyl drinks.
Methionine and pregnancy
“Cabbage” vitamin is extremely useful for pregnant women to detoxify the body. Methionine removes heavy metal compounds such as mercury, lead, cadmium from the liver, skin, bones, kidneys and lungs of future mothers. In addition, the substance increases the body’s resistance to radiation, which is important for women living in conditions of increased “adverse background” (in Belarus, Ukraine, in the western part of Russia).
In view of the fact that nutrient is involved in the formation of immunity, doctors do not recommend using the compound in the first months of pregnancy. This is due to the fact that in the early stages, the future mother’s immunity is naturally reduced in order for the fetus to take root in the body. Otherwise, rejection of the fetus may occur. In consequence, from the second trimester, methionine is harmless to the child and the mother, since it does not adversely affect the course of pregnancy. You need to take the drug only after prescribing a doctor in a strict dosage. Otherwise, a rare side effect of U-hypervitaminosis may be increased blood clotting, which leads to the formation of blood clots and premature termination of pregnancy.
As a rule, to eliminate the symptoms of early toxicosis (nausea, vomiting), doctors prescribe the expectant mother to take three components: cyanocobalamin (B12), folic acid (B9), methionine.
Vitamin U reduces protein levels, strengthens the placenta, fights psycho-emotional mood swings, increases the body’s resistance to colds, and provides nutrients to the fetus. Today, the effect of a compound on the course of pregnancy has not been thoroughly studied. According to literary data, some experts believe that the lack of methionine in the diet of the future mother leads to a violation of the embryo’s neural tube closure, which causes deviations in the infant’s nervous system.
S-methylmethonine or “antiulcus factor” is a vitamin-like substance with antihistamine, anti-inflammatory, lipotropic effects. The compound enhances the metabolism of the duodenum, stimulates the regeneration of cells of the gastric mucosa, protects the liver from fatty degeneration, and inhibits the development of atherosclerosis. Vitamin U in Europe and the USA is used as a separate pharmacological drug for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, fibromyalgia, and depressive conditions under the following trademarks: Same Rx – Mood, Sam-Sulfate.
In addition, S-methylmetonin is produced in the form of a biological additive, presented in the free market. The synthesized vitamin has a sweetish taste, a characteristic “cabbage” smell and is destroyed in the light.
Numerous observations indicate that the benefits of taking the nutrient in its natural form, which is part of plant foods, are 5 times higher than its artificially derived encapsulated progenitor.
Eat balanced and be healthy!