Water-soluble vitamins are a group of useful substances whose biochemical properties allow them to completely dissolve in the aquatic environment.
Vitamins are a complex of chemical-organic substances that the human body cannot synthesize on its own and needs to be replenished from food. The lack leads to metabolic disorders.
All known vitamins are divided into two groups: fat and water soluble. There are more water-soluble substances and the functions assigned to them by nature are also greater.
- 1 Chemical and biological properties of the group
- 2 Water soluble vitamins, how much are you?
- 3 Why do we need?
- 4 Fat-soluble and water-soluble substances: what is the difference
- 5 General characteristics
- 6 Pharmacological compatibility of water-soluble vitamins
- 7 How to keep in products
- 8 Beauty pills
Chemical and biological properties of the group
Water-soluble vitamins include substances that are beneficial to the human body and share common characteristics. The first of which is the ability to dissolve in water. This feature was the reason for this name of the vitamin group.
Properties of water-soluble substances:
- drugs simply drink water, they do not require additional components for absorption;
- easily absorbed into the blood from the intestines;
- they are not able to create a “depot” in the tissues of the body, they are quickly removed from it (they do not linger in the tissues for more than a day);
- must be regularly replenished in the body (found in most plant and animal foods);
- overdose of water-soluble substances does not lead to disorders of the body functions;
- excreted in the urine;
- have antioxidant properties;
- enhance the effect of other vitamin substances;
- lack of water-soluble substances leads to a decrease in the biological activity of liposoluble;
- overabundance does not affect the human body detrimental.
Water soluble vitamins, how much are you?
Water-soluble vitamins are a complex of substances, most of which are B-groups. These include:
- B1 (thiamine) – anti-neuritis;
- B2 (riboflavin) – necessary for hematopoiesis, energy metabolism;
- B3 (nicotinic acid, vitamin PP) – anti-pellargic;
- B5 (pantothenic acid) – is necessary for the health of nails, hair;
- B6 (pyridoxine) – protects against dermatitis;
- B9 (folic acid) – against anemia, is necessary for pregnant women, is responsible for the development of the fetus;
- B12 (cyanocobalamin) – is responsible for the metabolism process;
- C (ascorbic acid) – an antioxidant, strengthens blood vessels, promotes the absorption of iron, is good for acute respiratory viral infections;
- H or B7 (biotin) – is responsible for the health of the intestines, skin, hair.
Why do we need?
The cause of many diseases – vitamin deficiency. For example, rickets develops with a small amount of D-substance, scurvy – when ascorbic acid is not enough, Bury-Bury fever is a consequence of B1-deficiency, pellagra – niacin deficiency. In many countries, managed to get rid of the epidemics of these terrible diseases with the help of vitamins. In addition, modern medicine is increasingly paying attention to the complexes of microelements, when it comes to the treatment of cancer, cardiovascular, infectious diseases, problems of the respiratory tract.
The best safe sources of water-soluble elements are fruits and vegetables. Plant foods, as a rule, contain many flavins and carotenoids, and almost all the B vitamins are represented (with the exception of B12 and folic acid).
Fat-soluble and water-soluble substances: what is the difference
The main difference between water-soluble and fat-soluble substances is that they are not able to stay in the body for a long time. And non-compliance with a balanced diet for even a short time will cause hypovitaminosis. But fortunately, representatives of the water-soluble group are in many foods.
Another plus of these nutrients is a low level of toxicity. It is almost impossible to poison with vitamins that dissolve in water, since they do not accumulate in the tissues and are quickly eliminated from the body as part of the urine. Only some of them, taken in especially high doses, can provoke allergic reactions. These factors allow us to call water-soluble substances the safest of the vitamin “family”.
The most important for a person from the whole group are ascorbic acid and vitamins of group B. Although it is impossible to reduce the beneficial properties of other water-soluble substances.
Ascorbic acid is the most common form of vitamin C. It is present in many foods and in all pharmaceutical complexes. Meanwhile, this is an extremely unstable vitamin. Its structure is quickly disrupted by exposure to oxygen, sunlight and high temperatures (during heat treatment it is lost almost completely). Vitamin C does not tolerate alcohol, birth control pills, steroids.
Vitamin C is needed for the synthesis of collagen, neurotransmitters, steroid hormones, carnitine, contributes to the transformation of cholesterol into bile acid and increases the bioavailability of iron. The main functional role of ascorbing makes it one of the favorite vitamins for bodybuilders, as it ultimately gives energy, strength and helps build muscle.
Our grandmothers also taught that vitamin C is the best remedy for colds and many other diseases, with strong life-giving properties. Biochemists agree with this and call ascorbicum the strongest antioxidant.
Ascorbic acid is essential for healthy cell development, proper calcium absorption, normal growth and regeneration of damaged tissues, including for the rapid healing of wounds. In addition, it strengthens the capillaries, boosts immunity, protects the body from infections, promotes proper blood clotting. These white crystals in a powder with a sour taste are one of the favorite preparations of adults and children.
Daily “portion” of vitamin C ranges from 120 mg to 2 g, in some cases it reaches 5 g.
Ascorbic deficiency causes poor healing of wounds, bleeding gums, swelling, weakness, lack of energy. Insufficient consumption of C-substance dramatically reduces the body’s ability to absorb protein.
It is combined with B3 and other elements of the group, calcium, magnesium, protein.
Sources: citrus, leafy vegetables, berries, tomatoes, melons, papaya.
Vitamin B Complex
Substances of group B have many similar functions, and in the past they were generally considered one vitamin. And even in the human body B-elements work as a team, but at the same time, each of them plays its own important role.
A few days of malnutrition is enough to “earn” vitamin B1 hypovitaminosis. But to restore the balance of this substance is also easy – it will take only a few days. And with the introduction of “shock dose” in the body hypovitaminosis will disappear for several hours.
The advantage of thiamine is in the ability to enhance blood circulation and promote the supply of oxygen to cells, which increases energy, regulates the absorption of carbohydrates, and helps to form the correct blood composition. B1 is also necessary for maintaining the health of the nervous system, eliminating the tendency to depression, and improving memory.
B1 deficiency manifests itself in irritability, chronic fatigue, constipation, edema, hyperemia of the liver, memory impairment, impaired heart function, loss of appetite, weakening of muscles, improper coordination of movements, numbness of limbs, weight loss.
Dosage: it is not recommended to consume more than 1,5 gram of vitamin B1 per day. The standard dosage is in the range of 50 mg, for athletes it is possible to increase to 100 mg.
Well compatible with carbohydrates, vitamin C.
Sources: sunflower seeds, yolk, liver, pork, seafood, beans, peanuts, algae, mushrooms.
One of the most nutritious substances for the body, although, like the other water-soluble trace elements, is rapidly excreted from the body. In pure form, it is a yellow-orange powder that tastes bitter.
The role of riboflavin in the body is a lot like the functions of B1. In addition, it is essential for children in the developmental period (hence the other name of the substance – growth factor), promotes healing of hair and skin. Improves eyesight, in particular color perception. Easily destroyed in the sun.
Signs of B2 deficiency: cracks in the corners of the mouth, eye diseases, mucosal inflammation, sleep and digestion disorders, hair loss, dizziness, in children – growth retardation.
The daily rate of B2 is 1,8 mg, in some cases it is possible to increase the dose to 50 mg per day.
It is well compatible with other B vitamins, especially B6, antioxidants, iron.
Sources: lean meat, dairy products, leafy vegetables, fish, nuts, cereals.
Nicotinic acid helps the health of the nervous system and adrenal glands, improves the secretion of the stomach and gall bladder, affects the health of the skin, improves memory.
At the cellular level, it facilitates metabolic processes and the supply of cells with oxygen, reduces the supply of “bad” cholesterol. A link has also been established between vitamin B3 and the production of sex hormones. Sunlight and oxygen lead to the rapid destruction of nicotine.
B3 deficiency can manifest itself in pellagra, ulcer, headaches and fatigue, depression, indigestion, insomnia, dermatitis.
The body requires about 20 mg of vitamin B3 daily for proper operation, in some cases, you can increase the dosage to 100 mg per day.
It is well combined with elements of the B-complex, creatine, proteins.
Excellent sources of matter: liver, poultry and rabbit meat, milk, fish, nuts, cereals.
Pantothenic acid, or as it is often called anti-stress vitamin, contributes to the development of hormones responsible for good mood. It supports the proper functioning of the adrenal glands and the nervous system, affects the metabolism of fatty acids, which in turn helps to lose weight.
The “strengths” of B5 also include the ability to strengthen the immune system, relieve allergies, improve skin condition.
Pantothenic acid does not tolerate the effects of an acidic or alkaline environment. This means that during cooking, it is better not to add lemon juice, vinegar or soda to the dishes.
B5 deficiency is manifested in such symptoms as: fatigue and muscle weakness, convulsions, depression, headache, unpleasant sensations in the abdomen.
The daily rate of B5 is not defined, since in a healthy body the substance is synthesized in sufficient quantities in the intestine. In exceptional cases, supplemental use of vitamin varies in the range of 10 mg (depending on the level of hypovitaminosis).
It goes well with potassium and protein foods.
Sources: brewer’s yeast, eggs, nuts, sea fish, whole grains, beef, pork, raw vegetables.
Pyridoxine is one of the most significant vitamins for maintaining mental and physical health. Strengthens the immune system, promotes the growth of new cells and metabolic processes in the body. Prevents dandruff, psoriasis, eczema.
Necessary for children in a period of increased mental activity. In treatment programs used as a means to detoxify the liver. Affects the secretion of the stomach, increasing its acidity. Vitamin B6 relieves painful sensations during menstruation and nausea during pregnancy, regulates the hormones in the female body.
The sun’s rays are detrimental to vitamin B6. To preserve the maximum amount of nutrients, it is advisable to eat vegetables raw.
The deficiency leads to fatty hepatosis of the liver, weakness, irritability, insomnia, osteoporosis, arthritis, diseases of the skin and nails. The symptoms of B6 deficiency are very similar to those of vitamin B3 deficiency.
Nutritionists recommend taking about 2 mg B6 daily. Dose exceeding 2 g, the effect on the body is toxic.
Well compatible with vitamin C, magnesium, potassium, sodium, zinc.
Sources: kidneys, liver, chicken, eggs, walnuts, sprouted wheat, peas, carrots, yeast.
Unlike other vitamins, folic acid is able to linger in the body – it creates its own “depot” in the liver tissues and, worse than other substances of the group, dissolves in water.
The main role of vitamin B9 – DNA synthesis, the effect on cell growth, the formation of red blood cells and white blood cells. Provides the body with energy. Not the last role in maintaining the balance of vitamin B9 in the body is played by the intestines – malfunction of the body leads to hypovitaminosis, which eventually turns into anemia.
Like vitamin B6, folic acid is important for maintaining the health of the female body. It is detrimental to B9 tobacco smoke. Also, the vitamin is afraid of heat and light.
Lack of folic acid is fraught with the development of chronic fatigue, the appearance of acne, leading to anemia and osteoporosis. Symptoms of a lack of folic acid can be frequent disorders in the digestive system, anxiety, and depression.
The minimum required daily allowance is 400 µg substance.
It goes well with proteins, vitamins C, B6, B12.
Examples of foods rich in folic acid: green and starchy vegetables, fruits, liver, legumes.
This B vitamin is often used as an appetite stimulant and energy enhancer. Takes part in the formation of red blood cells, fights against infections and allergies. For children, B12 is beneficial as a vitamin for growth.
Hypovitaminosis most often suffer from vegetarians, as the only source of the substance is animal products. Does not tolerate high temperatures and bright light.
Lack of В12 often causes Alzheimer’s disease, disorders of the brain and nervous system, cardiovascular diseases.
Consumption rate: the daily minimum dosage of vitamin B 12 is 3 mcg, the maximum allowable dose is 30 mcg per day.
It is well combined with calcium, potassium, sodium, iron and vitamin C.
The main sources of the substance, as already noted, are products of animal origin. The most saturated with vitamin: liver, offal, shellfish, cheese, fish, dairy.
Biotin, despite the unusual definition of vitamin H, is also a representative of group B. Another name for the substance is vitamin B8. The biological role in the human body is the formation of red blood cells, the effect on cell growth, participation in metabolic processes. It supports healthy hair, protects the skin from premature aging, strengthens bone marrow and nerve tissue.
Vitamin H is involved in more than 40 enzymatic processes in the human body. Crystals of pure biotin dissolve well in water, are quite stable before exposure to acid, alkali and high temperature.
Biotin deficiency is a rare phenomenon, accompanied by symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, weakness, increased cholesterol, loss of appetite, hair loss.
The usual daily intake of vitamin A is 300 mcg.
It goes well with vitamins B5 and B9.
Sources of biotin are often called calf liver, broccoli, yeast, salmon, spinach, cheese, mushrooms, and nuts.
Water soluble vitamins: comparative table
|Substance name||Functions in the body||Sources of|
|B1 (thiamine)||The participant of enzymatic processes, necessary for the metabolism of energy, supports the functioning of the nervous system.||Pork, whole grains, cereals, legumes, nuts, seeds.|
|B2 (riboflavin)||The participant of enzymatic processes, is necessary for the metabolism of energy, is necessary for normal vision and healthy skin.||Dairy products, leafy green vegetables, whole grains, cereals.|
|B3 (nicotinic acid)||The participant of enzymatic processes, is necessary for the metabolism of energy, is important for the nervous and digestive system, supports skin health.||Meat, poultry, fish, whole grains, cereals, green leafy vegetables, mushrooms, peanuts.|
|B5 (pantothenic acid)||Member of enzymatic processes, is necessary for energy metabolism.||In most products.|
|H (B8) (Biotin)||Member of enzymatic processes, is necessary for energy metabolism.||In most products, it is synthesized in the intestines.|
|B6 (pyridoxine)||The participant of enzymatic processes, necessary for protein metabolism, promotes the formation of red blood cells.||Meat, fish, vegetables, fruits.|
|B9 (folic acid)||The participant of enzymatic processes is necessary for the formation of DNA, new cells, red blood cells.||Green leafy vegetables, seeds, orange juice, liver, whole grains.|
|B12||The participant of enzymatic processes, necessary for the creation of new cells, supports the function of the nervous system.||Meat, poultry, fish, seafood, eggs, dairy products. No plant food.|
|C (ascorbic acid)||Antioxidant, a participant in enzymatic processes, is essential for protein metabolism, important for maintaining the immune system.||Citrus, different types of cabbage, melon, strawberries, peppers, tomatoes, potatoes, papaya, mango, kiwi.|
The best food sources of water-soluble vitamins
|Vitamin||Daily rate||What products can be obtained from|
|B1||1,2-2,5 mg||200 g Pork|
|B2||1,5 mg||3 eggs|
|B3||5-10 mg||200 g lamb|
|B5||9-12 mg||200 g beef|
|B6||2-3 mg||200 of fresh corn or 250 of beef|
|B8 (N)||0,15-0,2 mg||4 Chicken Yolks|
|B9||200 μg||A few leaves of lettuce or parsley|
|B12||3 μg||Xnumx g carp|
|С||50-100 mg||200 of strawberries or 100 of Bulgarian pepper|
Pharmacological compatibility of water-soluble vitamins
- The first and most important rule – it is forbidden to mix different vitamins in one syringe.
- It is impossible to combine in one injection of B1 with B6, B12, C, PP, tetracycline, hydrocortisone, salicylates.
- B1 is incompatible with solutions containing sulfites.
- The combination of B1, B6, B12 affects the absorption of vitamins.
- B2 and B12 are incompatible.
- B6 is not combined with B1, B12, caffeine and aminophylline. Not applicable for gastric ulcer and 12 duodenal ulcer. Rapid intravenous administration of the drug causes cramps.
- B12 can not be combined with B1, B2, B6, C, PP, acetylsalicylic or hydrochloric acid, aminazine, gentamicin. Use with caution in angina, malignant and benign tumors.
- B9 is not compatible with sulfonamides. Carefully take people in old age, as well as prone to cancer.
- C is not mixed together with B1, B12, aminophylline, tetracycline, dibazole, salicylates, diphenhydramine, iron, heparin, penicillin.
- Do not mix ascorbic and analgin in one syringe.
How to keep in products
As already mentioned, water-soluble vitamins are found in almost all vegetables. Of course, in order to preserve the beneficial composition as much as possible, it is desirable to eat vegetable food without heat treatment. But, of course, this is not always possible. So, can not lunch be tasty and healthy at the same time? In fact, if you cook the vegetables correctly, there is a chance to preserve the required amount of nutrients, and at the same time – improper storage can completely deprive vitamins and raw food. You do not know how to avoid this – read the tips tested in practice by many hostesses.
- Speed. Cooking is necessary quickly – the longer the vegetables are heat treated, the less vitamins they have left.
- Temperature. Foods cooked using lower temperatures retain more vitamin content. As an example: if beef is cooked at 220 degrees, then 55% of vitamin B1 will succumb to destruction, and only 30% of thiamine will destroy the temperature in 150 degrees Celsius.
- Shine. Vegetables containing water-soluble vitamins should be stored in dark rooms. During cooking, they should also be covered with a lid and the access of oxygen to them (it destroys most of the useful substances).
- Freshness. For cooking, it is desirable to use the freshest products – they contain a large amount of vitamins, which means that after heat treatment, they will also remain more. It is advisable to give preference to seasonal vegetables and fruits grown in your climate zone – during transportation a significant part of nutrients is lost.
- Water. When cooking vegetables, try to use as little water as possible and do not pierce the vegetables with a knife (for example, when potatoes are boiled “in uniform”). The liquid should only slightly cover the surface of the vegetables. After cooking, do not leave the vegetables in the broth – immediately drain the water. For boiling the beans, you can use vegetable broth or decoction after cooking rice. Thus, vitamins B and other useful substances boiled out of cereals will be “transferred” to beans.
- Double boiler. At every opportunity to use steam instead of water. Products cooked in a double boiler save 50 percent more nutrients than boiled in water.
- Frying. This way kills 90 percent of vitamin C, besides, it is worth remembering about the dangers of overdone vegetable oil.
- Canning. This way of cooking is known to every hostess. Time-consuming, requires a lot of time and effort. But the benefits of it, in fact, no. Canning almost completely destroys all water-soluble vitamins in fruits and vegetables. Therefore, it is difficult to say how important canned food is in nutrition …
- Storage. Do not store vegetables for a long time. Six months after the harvest, potatoes lose more than 40% of vitamin C. Only half of ascorbic acid remains in greens on the second day.
- The right choice of vegetables. If the vegetables are to be heat treated, it is better to give preference to small specimens – they will cook faster and save more vitamin in themselves.
- Proper cooking. Do not soak the vegetables before cooking in water, but cook in the peel, not cut into pieces, and cook the whole vegetable. This trick allows you to save on 20% more vitamin C. Pour boiling water over vegetables and salt them as late as possible (salt “sucks” water-soluble vitamins from food). When cooking vegetables, add a few milligrams of lemon juice or vinegar to the water – this will save vitamin C.
These simple tips are quite effective. By sticking to them, you can effortlessly make dinner more nutritious, tastier, and more fortified.
The lack of one or another vitamin affects not only well-being, but also affects the appearance. Ever wondered why in some people even hair turns gray faster and wrinkles appear quite quickly, while others manage to maintain a youthful appearance until they are old? The answer, as always, is simple up to the banality – vitamins. These beneficial substances will play an important role in the metabolism at the cellular level, and this has important physiological significance for the body.
The mechanism of action of vitamins for the preservation of beauty for many years primarily consists in the regular supply of oxygen to cells, and, as you know, it is life itself. So let’s look at which vitamins are most important for beauty at any age and the lack of substances that weak nails and split ends signal.
B vitamins – used for inflammation of the skin, cracks, hair loss.
- В1 – accelerates hair growth, relieves acne;
- B2 – treats acne, heals microcracks;
- B3 (nicotinic acid, PP) – keeps the skin supple, improves its color, eliminates peeling;
- B5 – eliminates dermatitis, inflammations on the lips;
- B8 (biotin, H) – soothes inflammations on the skin, has nourishing properties (necessary for the face and hair);
- B9 (folic acid) – provides the skin with a healthy color, prevents graying of hair;
- В12 – an excellent remedy for hair loss, seborrhea, acne;
- C (ascorbic acid) – “building material” for collagen fibers, protects the skin from early aging, pallor, prevents the appearance of spider veins, treats acne and brittle nails.
Did you notice at least one of the symptoms described? Take care that more products containing vitamins B and C appear on the tar, and then you will not have to beat up the thresholds of dermatologists and trichologists in search of advice on how to graze your nails, hair and restore the skin to its former smoothness.
In general, it is important to remember about vitamins in food, not when doctors diagnose a lack of nutrients in the body.
The correct and healthy food should be remembered daily, and regularly follow the recommendations of nutritionists. Well, the truth is, they say: the disease is easier to prevent than to treat complications after it. And vitamins are the ideal prevention of all health troubles.